Consequências neurológicas associadas aos transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal / Neurological consequences associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Beatriz Carvalho de Oliveira, Eric Pasqualotto, Amanda Carolina Fonseca da Silva, Suelen dos Santos, Vitor Mauricio Merlin Maschietto, Sofia de Miranda Caçote, Sofia Ferreira Machado, Mariá Lessa Silva, Eduardo Dalagnol Winkel dos Santos, Kevyn Felipe Mendes

Abstract


As Doenças do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal têm elevada prevalência global e estão entre as mais comuns causas de alterações no neurodesenvolvimento, o que se relaciona ao consumo de álcool por cerca de 20% a 65% das gestantes, sendo que parte faz uso de quantidades que colocam o feto em risco de vida. Objetivou-se analisar a literatura acerca dos Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal (TEAF) e suas consequências anatômicas, comportamentais e cognitivas, através de uma revisão integrativa de literatura. A busca foi feita nas bases de dados SciELO, PubMed e Lilacs, sendo incluídos estudos que tratavam sobre as consequências neurológicas associadas aos TEAF. Os desfechos negativos da exposição pré-natal ao álcool contemplam alterações anatômicas, como a redução do volume cerebelar e de regiões importantes do telencéfalo e do córtex. Ainda, alterações comportamentais são marcantes, levando à má qualidade de sono, deficiência nas funções sociais e maior ocorrência de Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH). Além disso, no que diz respeito às alterações cognitivas, a exposição ao álcool altera o processo somatossensorial, prejudica a memória, além de piorar a função executiva e intelectual.


Keywords


transtornos do espectro alcoólico fetal, etanol, teratógenos, transtornos do neurodesenvolvimento.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv5n3-072

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