Evidências científicas atualizadas sobre as vacinas para prevenção do SARS-COV-2 / Updated scientific evidence on vaccines for SARS-COV-2 prevention

Evelyn de Kenya Lins Prates, Fernanda Amparo Ribeiro, Edmar Araújo de Lima Filho, Camila Damiani de Matos, Clara Bucater Veado, Welsher Braga Ribeiro Chaves, Velton Braga Ribeiro Chaves, Pedro Henrique Sulz Marx, Fernanda Ramos Rangel

Abstract


Os diversos laboratórios estão desenvolvendo vacinas para prevenção da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, conhecido como COVID-19.  O desenvolvimento de vacinas progride por meio de avaliação pré-clínica e três estágios clínicos distintos, ensaios de fase I que são elaborados para testar a segurança da vacina, embora a imunogenicidade também seja medida, ensaios de fase II que expandem o perfil de segurança e a avaliação da resposta imune em um número maior de participantes  e ensaios de fase III que são elaborados para determinar a eficácia na prevenção de um desfecho predefinido, geralmente doença confirmada por laboratório. Os estudos em animais para as vacinas de SARS-CoV-1 e MERS-CoV levantaram preocupações quanto ao aumento da doença com a vacinação, após o desafio com o vírus de tipo selvagem, alguns animais previamente vacinados desenvolveram anticorpos não neutralizantes e respostas de células Th2 que foram associadas à inflamação pulmonar eosinofílica. No entanto, parâmetros imunológicos específicos foram propostos para estudos em animais e humanos para reduzir o risco de aumento da doença com vacinas COVID-19.


Keywords


vacinas, coronavírus, prevenção primária.

References


World Health Organization. Director-General's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020.

Krammer F. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development. Nature 2020; 586:516.

Halstead SB, Katzelnick L. COVID-19 Vaccines: Should We Fear ADE? J Infect Dis 2020; 222:1946.

Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cold-adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. J Infect Dis 1994; 169:68.

Martin JE, Louder MK, Holman LA, et al. A SARS DNA vaccine induces neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses in healthy adults in a Phase I clinical trial. Vaccine 2008; 26:6338.

Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L, et al. DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Science 2020; 369:806.

Case JB, Rothlauf PW, Chen RE, et al. Replication-Competent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vaccine Vector Protects against SARS-CoV-2-Mediated Pathogenesis in Mice. Cell Host Microbe 2020; 28:465.

MacNeil JR, Su JR, Broder KR, et al.. Updated Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 Vaccine After Reports of Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Among Vaccine Recipients — United States, April 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021.

Reynolds CJ, Pade C, Gibbons JM, et al. Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose. Science 2021.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Syncope after vaccination--United States, January 2005-July 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:457.

Gee J, Marquez P, Su J, et al. First Month of COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Monitoring — United States, December 14, 2020–January 13, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021.

Zhou D, Dejnirattisai W, Supasa P, et al. Evidence of escape of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 from natural and vaccine-induced sera. Cell 2021; 184:2348.

Abu-Raddad LJ, Chemaitelly H, Butt AA, National Study Group for COVID-19 Vaccination. Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 Variants. N Engl J Med 2021.

Shimabukuro T, Nair N. Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. JAMA 2021; 325:780.

Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med 2021; 384:403.

Sadoff J, Gray G, Vandebosch A, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Single-Dose Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine against Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2021.

Hause AM, Gee J, Johnson T, et al. Anxiety-Related Adverse Event Clusters After Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination — Five U.S. Mass Vaccination Sites, April 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021.

Madhi SA, Baillie V, Cutland CL, et al. Efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. N Engl J Med 2021.

Shinde V, Bhikha S, Hoosain Z, et al. Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant. N Engl J Med 2021.

Logunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Zubkova OV, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine in two formulations: two open, non-randomised phase 1/2 studies from Russia. Lancet 2020; 396:887.

Ella R, Vadrevu KM, Jogdand H, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2021; 21:637.

Scully M, Singh D, Lown R, et al. Pathologic Antibodies to Platelet Factor 4 after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccination. N Engl J Med 2021.

Cavanaugh AM, Fortier S, Lewis P, et al. COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with a SARS-CoV-2 R.1 Lineage Variant in a Skilled Nursing Facility After Vaccination Program - Kentucky, March 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021; 70:639.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv5n3-155

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.