The crude glycerin reduces losses fermentative and improves the nutritional value of marandu grass silage in a semiarid region / A glicerina bruta reduz perdas fermentativas e melhora o valor nutricional da silagem de capim marandu em uma região semiárida

Eleuza Clarete Junqueira de Sales, Flávio Pinto Monção, Orlando Felipe Costa Marques, Amanda Maria Silva Alencar, Fernanda Ferreira da Hora, Isadora Alves Santana, Emanuell Medeiros Vieira, Mariana Antunes de Jesus, Julieta Maria Alencar Chamone, José Eduardo Jardim Murta, Heberth Christian Ferreira


The ensiling of marandu grass at the recommended time of management results in low dry matter (DM) content and nutritional value, but the addition of crude glycerin can compensate for these deficits if used during ensiling. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the best level of inclusion of crude glycerin that can improve fermentation and the nutritional value of silages prepared with Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. The treatments consisted of five levels of inclusion of crude glycerin (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30% of fresh forage) during ensiling of marandu grass with eight replications following the completely randomized design. For the evaluation of ruminal kinetics, four crossbred steers were used, cannulated in the rumen, following a randomized block design in a split plot scheme. For the percentage unit of inclusion of glycerin, there was a linear reduction of 0.34% in gas losses and increase of 0.45% and 0.55% in the recovery of DM (P <0.01) and in the DM content (P <0.01), respectively. The inclusion of up to 22.5% of crude glycerin in the silage of marandu grass is recommended to reduce losses during fermentation and improve the recovery of dry matter and the nutritional value of silage.


biodiesel; Urochloa brizantha; forage conservation; glycerol; ruminants


ABUBAKR, A. R.; ALIMON, A. R; YAAKUB, H.; ABDULLAH, N.; IVAN, M. Digestibility, rumen protozoa, and ruminal fermentation in goats receiving dietary palm oil by-products. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 12:147-154, 2013.

AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD RESEARCH COUNCIL - AFRC. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. Walligford: CAB International, 1993.

ALVALÁ, R. C. S.; CUNHA, A. P. M. A.; BRITO, S. S. B.; SELUCHI, M. E.; MARENGO, J. A.; MORAES, O. L.L.; CARVALHO, M. O.; Drought monitoring in the Brazilian Semiarid region. An Acad Bras Cienc 91:1–15, 2019.

ANP - Anuário Estatístico Brasileiro do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis 2019. Disponível em Acessado em 25 de Abril de 2020.

ANTUNES, F. Z. Caracterização climática do estado de Minas Gerais: climatologia agrícola. Inf Agropec 12:9-13, 1986.

ASSOCIATION OF OFFICIAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTS - AOAC. Official methods of analysis.16.ed. Washington, p. 2000, 1995.

CARVALHO, B. F.; AVILA, C. L. S; PEREIRA, M. N.; SCHWAN, R. F. Methylotrophic yeast, lactic acid bacteria and glycerin as additives for sugarcane silage. Grass and Forage Science 72:355-368, 2017.

CASALI, A. O.; DETMANN, E.; VALADARES FILHO, S. C.; PEREIRA, J. C.; HENRIQUES, L. T.; FREITAS, S. G.; PAULINO, M. F. Influência do tempo de incubação e do tamanho de partículas sobre os teores de compostos indigestíveis em alimentos e fezes bovinas obtidos por procedimentos in situ. Rev Bras Zootec 37:335-342, 2008.

FERRAZ, J. B. S.; FELÍCIO, P. E. Production systems – An example from Brazil. Meat Sci 84:238–243, 2010.

FIRKINS, J. L.; YU, Z.; MORRISON, M. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism: perspectives for integration of microbiology and nutrition for dairy. J Dairy Sci 90:1-16, 2007

GOERING, H. K; VAN SOEST, P. J. Forage Fiber Analysis. USDA Agricultural Research service. Handbook number 379. US Department of Agriculture. Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1970.

JENKINS, T. C.; PALMQUIST, D. L. Effect of fatty acids or calciumsoaps on rumen and total nutrient digestibility of dairy rations. J Dairy Sci 67: 978-986, 1984.

JOBIM, C. C.; NUSSIO, L. G.; REIS, R. A.; SCHMIDT, P. Avanços metodológicos na avaliação da qualidade da forragem conservada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 36:101-119, 2007.

KÖPPEN, W.; GEIGER, R. Klimate der Erde. Justus Perthes: Gotha, Germany, 1928.

KUNG, J. R. L.; SHAVER, R. D.; GRANT, R. J.; SCHMIDT, R. J.; BORREANI, G.; TABACCO, E.; SCHMIDT, R. J.; HOLMES, B. J.; MUCK, R. E. Silage review: Interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. J Dairy Sci 101:4020–4033, 2018.

MERTENS, D. R. E.; LOFTEN, J. R. The effects of starch on forage fiber digestion kinetics in vitro. J Dairy Sci 63:1437-1446, 1980.

MONÇÃO, F. P.; COSTA, M. A. M. S; RIGUEIRA, J. P. S.; SALES, E. C. J.; LEAL, D. B.; SILVA, M. F. P.; GOMES, V. M.; CHAMONE, J. M. A.; ALVES, D. D.; CARVALHO, C. C. S.; MURTA, J. E. J.; ROCHA JÚNIOR, V. R. Productivity and nutritional value of BRS capiaçu grass (Pennisetum purpureum) managed at four regrowth ages in a semiarid region. Trop Anil Health Prod 52:235-241, 2020.

MUCK, R. E.; NADEAU, E. M. G.; MCALLISTER, T. A.; CONTRERAS-GOVEA, F. E.; SANTOS, M. C.; KUNG JR, L. Silage review: Recent advances and future uses of silage additives. J Dairy Sci 101:3980–4000, 2018.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (NRC).Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle.7th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.

NETER J, WASSERMAN W & KUTNER MH. 1985. Applied linear statistical models. Regression, analysis of variance, and experimental designs. 2. ed. USA, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1985. 1127 p.

NOCEK, J. E. In situ and other methods to estimate ruminal protein and energy digestibility: a review. J Dairy Sci 71:2051-2069, 1988.

ORRICO JUNIOR, M. A. P.; DUARTE, J. A. V.; CRONE, C.; NEVES, F. O.; REIS, R. A.; ORRICO, A. C. A.; SCHWINGEL, A. W.; VILELA, D. M. The use of crude glycerin as an alternative to reduce fermentation losses and enhance the nutritional value of Piatã grass silage. Rev Brase Zootec 46: 638-644, 2017.

ØRSKOV, E. R.; MCDONALD, I. The estimation of degradability in the rumen form incubation measurement weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science 92:499-508, 1979.

RIGUEIRA, J. P. S, MONÇÃO, F. P, SALES, E. C. J.; BRANT, L. M. S.; PIRES, D. A. A.; ALVES, D. D.; REIS, S. T. Crude glycerin lev-els in sugarcane silage: losses and nutritional value. Bolet. Indúst. Anim. 74: 308-316, 2017.

RIGUEIRA JPS, MONÇÃO FP, SALES ECJ, REIS ST, BRANT LMS, CHAMONE JMA, ROCHA JÚNIOR VR & PIRES DAA. 2018. Fermentative profile and nutritional value of elephant grass silage with different levels of crude glycerin. Semina Ciên Agr. 39:833-844.

ROBERTSON, J. B.; VAN SOEST, P. J. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human foods. In: James, W.P. T.; Theander, O. The analysis of dietary fiber in food. New York: Marcel Dekker, p.23-158, 1981.

SAS Institute. SAS Systems for windows, Version 8.2 ed. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, 1999.

SILVA, D. J.; QUEIROZ, A. C. Análise de alimentos: métodos químicos e biológicos. 3 ed. Viçosa (MG): Editora UFV, 2002.

SILVA, J. S.; RIBEIRO, K. G.; PEREIRA, O. G.; MANTOVANI, H. C.; CECON, P. R.; PEREIRA, R. C.; SILVA, J. D. L. Nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass and stylo mixed silages. Anil Sci J 89:72-78, 2018.

SILVA, M. C. A.; COSTA, N. M.; RIGUEIRA, J. P. S.; JESUS, D. L. S.; SILVA, N. B. S.; SILVA FILHO, W. S.; SILVA, J. T.; ARAÚJO, J. J. S.; ROCHA JÚNIOR, V. R.; ALVES, D. D.; CHAMONE, J. M. A.; MONÇÃO, F. P. The effect of graded levels of crude glycerin in brs capiaçu grasssilage: fermentation profile and bromatological composition. I J App Ani Sci 9:597-602, 2019.

SNIFFEN, C. J.; O’CONNOR, J. D.; VAN SOEST, P. J.; FOX, D. G.; RUSSELL, J. B. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J Ani Sci 70:3562 3577, 1992.

VAN SOEST, P. J.; ROBERTSON, J. B. LEWIS, B. A. Symposium: carbohydrate methodology, and nutritional implications in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci 74:3583-3597, 1991.

WALDO, D. R.; SMITH, L. W.; COX, E. L. Model of cellulose disappearance from the rumen. J Dairy Sci 55:125-129, 1972.



  • There are currently no refbacks.