Analysis of the transient response of fault locators based on one-end data applied to electrical power systems / Análise da resposta transitória de localizadores de falta baseados em dados de um terminal aplicados à sistemas elétricos de potência

Fernanda Cazabonet Ramos, Júlio César Castelhano dos Santos, Eduardo Machado dos Santos, Gabrieli Pinarello Pizzolato, Arian Rodrigues Fagundes, Alex Itczak, Jefferson Oliveira dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo Fiuza Marques


When a fault occurs and the protection acts, the interruption time of the power supply can be reduced if the fault location is accurate. In this context, since the Transmission Lines (TLs) present relatively constant characteristic impedances per km, numerical relays can present functions for the estimation of the fault location, which perform the impedance calculation between the equipment installation point until the short-circuit point. Thus, this work aims to compare the performance of fault location methods (FLs), based on the calculation of impedance from data coming from one terminal, which have been proposed in the specialized literature. To this end, a test system was implemented in the ATPDraw software, from which different types of short-circuits were simulated, at different sampling rates and points of the transmission line, in order to generate a bank of voltage and current signals, which were measured at one terminal of the line. The FLs were implemented in the Matlab® software and tested for the bank signals, allowing to obtain the transient response of each method and conclude that the FLs estimation of the fault location varies according to the type of fault, the sampling rate and the circuit breaker opening time.


Electric Power System, Fault Location, Performance, Protection, Transient Response.

Full Text:



T. Stringfield, D. Marihart, and R. Stevens, “Fault location methods for overhead lines”, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Part III: Power Apparatus and Systems, v. 76, p. 518-519, 1957.

M. Sant and Y. Paithankar, “Online digital fault locator for overhead transmission line”, In: IET Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, v. 126, p. 1181-1185, 1979.

T. Takagi et al., “Development of a new type fault locator using the one-terminal voltage and current data”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, v. 101, p. 423-436, 1982.

E. O. Schweitzer, “Evaluation and development of transmission line fault-locating techniques which use sinusoidal steady-state information”, Computers & Electrical Engineering, v. 10, p. 269-278, 1983.

L. Eriksson, M. M. Saha, and G. Rockefeller, “An accurate fault locator with compensation for apparent reactance in the fault resistance resulting from remote-end infeed”, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, v. 1, p. 423-436, 1985.

K. Srinivasan and A. S. A. Jacques, “A new fault location algorithm for radial transmission lines with loads”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 4, p. 1676-1682.

D. Novosel et al., “Accurate fault location using digital relays”, In: Proceedings of the IICPST Conference, p. 1120-1124, 1994.

D. Novosel et al., “System for locating faults and estimating fault resistance in distribution networks with tapped loads”, US Patent 5,839,093, 1998.

M. Saha et al. “A new accurate fault locating algorithm for series compensated lines”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, v. 14, p. 789-797, 1999.

A. Gopalakrishnan et al. “Fault location using the distributed parameter transmission line model”, IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery, v. 15, p. 1169-1174, 2000.

A. S. Bretas and R. H. Salim, “A new fault location technique for distribution feeders with distributed generation”, WSEAS Transactions on Power Systems, WSEAS Press, v. 1, n. 5, p. 894, 2006.

M. Farshad and J. Sadeh, "Accurate Single-Phase Fault-Location Method for Transmission Lines Based on K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm Using One-End Voltage," in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 2360-2367, Oct. 2012.

C. P. Reddy, D. V. S. S. S. Sarma and O. V. S. R. Varaprasad, "A novel fault classifier and locator using one-end current spectrum and minimal synchronized symmetrical components for transmission lines," 2016 IEEE Annual India Conference (INDICON), Bangalore, pp. 1-6, 2016.

S. S. Nagam, E. Koley and S. Ghosh, "Artificial Neural Network Based Fault Locator For Three Phase Transmission Line with STATCOM," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), Coimbatore, pp. 1-4, 2017.

IEEE Guide for determining fault location on ac transmission and distribution lines. IEEE Std C37.114-2014, p. 1-36.



  • There are currently no refbacks.