Análise da presença de benzodiazepínicos no ambiente aquático e o possível cenário de impacto ambiental / Analysis of the presence of benzodiazepines in the aquatic environment and the possible environmental impact scenario

Maria Virgínia Alves Ramalhão, Lara Luiza Freitas de Oliveira, Ralph Gruppi Thomé, Hélio Batista dos Santos, Magna Cristina de Paiva, Farah Maria Drumond Chequer

Abstract


Os benzodiazepínicos são fármacos psicotrópicos amplamente utilizados, que podem atingir o meio aquático por diversas vias e persistirem nestes ambientes como micropoluentes, devido aos processos de tratamento de água e esgoto convencionais não removerem os mesmos em sua totalidade. Dessa forma, foi realizada uma revisão narrativa com o objetivo de avaliar estudos que retratem a presença de benzodiazepínicos em ambientes aquáticos e suas respectivas concentrações, além de analisar os possíveis impactos negativos ao meio ambiente. Foram realizadas buscas de artigos, em quatro bases de dados: PubMed, Science Direct, SciELO e Google Acadêmico, utilizando os descritores “Sewage”, “Benzodiazepine”, “Effluents” e “Wastewater”, juntamente com o operador booleano “AND”. 34 artigos foram incluídos nesta revisão, sendo três realizados no Brasil e 31 em outros países. Foi observado que 32/34 artigos relataram a presença de benzodiazepínicos no ambiente aquático, sendo os mais frequentes o diazepam, oxazepam e lorazepam, e os encontrados em maiores concentraçoes o bromazepam, oxazepam e lorazepam. Dois estudos abordaram também alguns efeitos tóxicos decorrentes da presença de benzodiazepínicos no ambiente aquático, tais como citotoxicidade em leveduras e diatomáceas, bioacumulação e alterações comportamentais em peixes. A presença destes fármacos no ambiente aquático é preocupante, uma vez que os benzodiazepínicos podem causar danos não só aos organismos aquáticos, mas também à saúde pública. Portanto, a presente revisão coloca em foco a presença de benzodiazepínicos no ambiente aquático e seus efeitos nocivos, sendo necessários mais estudos de toxicidade e o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para resolução desta problemática.

 


Keywords


Benzodiazepínicos, Efluentes, Esgoto, Águas residuais.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n10-315

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