Euterpe edulis pulp products and your effect on liver and kidney of in vivo model of colorectal cancer: Histopathological analysis / Produtos da polpa de Euterpe edulis e seus efeitos no fígado e nos rins em modelo in vivo de câncer colorretal: Análise histopatológica

Flávia Barbosa Pinto, Cinthia Vidal Monteiro da Silva Couto, Anderson Barros Archanjo, Mayara Mota Oliveira, Joaquim Gasparini dos Santos, Otávio Pereira Oliveira, Pollyanna Ibrahim Silva, Jankerle Neves Boeloni, Louisiane de Carvalho Nunes, Adriana Madeira Álvares da Silva, Leonardo Oliveira Trivilin


The objective was to report the injuries on liver and kidney promoted by experimental colorectal carcinogenesis induction in rats and evaluate the effect of supplementation with Euterpe edulis M. pulp products on resolution of this injuries. Colorectal carcinogenesis with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine was induced in young male rats, allocated into: C - induced to carcinogenesis; CJ - induced to carcinogenesis and supplemented with juçara fruit pulp; and CE - induced to carcinogenesis and supplemented with juçara fruit lyophilized extract. Nine animals were a negative control. Supplementation occurred three times a week, totaling 54 days of administration with 1 mg of cyanidin-3-glycoside per kilogram live weight. The hepatic and renal histopathological injuries were assessed at 10 and 23 weeks. In liver, at 10-week biliary hyperplasia was more evident in colorectal cancer induced groups compared to N group (p = 0.0230), as well as megalocytosis (p = 0.0269), and juçara fruit-based product do not promote cytoprotection. At 23-week biliary hyperplasia continued present, and liver necrosis was evident in C group and CJ group. Hepatic degeneration was greater in C group, and megalocytosis was evident in the cancer-induced groups, without cytoprotection by juçara fruit-based product. In kidney, at 23-week, renal congestion was more evident in CJ group, and tubular degeneration in C and CE groups. Important hepatic and renal injuries were observed in rats induced to colorectal cancer and the supplementation with juçara fruit-based product, in the dose used, did not interfere in the prevention and resolution of these injuries, mainly with the chronic use.


carcinogenesis, experimental model, liver injuries, renal injuries, biocompounds

Full Text:



Aksu, D. S., Sa?lam, Y. S., Yildirim, S., and Aksu, T. (2017). Effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice on kidney, liver, heart and testis histopathological changes, and the tissues lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in lead acetate-treated rats. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France), 63(10), 33–42.

Alessandra-Perini, J., Perini, J. A., Rodrigues-Baptista, K. C., de Moura, R. S., Junior, A. P., Dos Santos, T. A., Souza, P., Nasciutti, L. E., and Machado, D. E. (2018). Euterpe oleracea extract inhibits tumorigenesis effect of the chemical carcinogen DMBA in breast experimental cancer. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 18(1), 116.

Balmain, A., and Harris, C. C. (2000). Carcinogenesis in mouse and human cells: parallels and paradoxes. Carcinogenesis, 21(3), 371–377.

Blatt, C. R., Becker, M. K., and Lunardelli, M. J. M. (2016). Lesão hepática induzida por medicamentos: qual o papel do farmacêutico clínico? Revista brasileira de farmacia hospitalar e serviços de saúde, 7(4), 31-35. Retrieved from

Borges, G. D. S. C., Gonzaga, L. V., Jardini, F. A., Mancini Filho, J., Heller, M., Micke, G. and Fett, R. (2013). Protective effect of Euterpe edulis M. on Vero cell culture and antioxidante evaluation based on phenolic composition using HPLC–ESI–MS/MS. Food research international, 51(1), 363–369.

Chin, Y. W., Chai, H. B., Keller, W. J., and Kinghorn, A. D. (2008). Lignans and other constituents of the fruits of Euterpe oleracea (Acai) with antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 56(17), 7759–7764.

COMSTOCK, C. C., LAWSON, L. H., GREENE, E. A., and OBERST, F. W. (1954). Inhalation toxicity of hydrazine vapor. A.M.A. archives of industrial health, 10(6), 476–490.

Corpet, D. E., and Pierre, F. (2005). How good are rodent models of carcinogenesis in predicting efficacy in humans? A systematic review and meta-analysis of colon chemoprevention in rats, mice and men. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 41(13), 1911–1922.

da Costa, C. A., Ognibene, D. T., Cordeiro, V., de Bem, G. F., Santos, I. B., Soares, R. A., de Melo Cunha, L. L., Carvalho, L., de Moura, R. S., and Resende, A. C. (2017). Effect of Euterpe oleracea Mart. Seeds Extract on Chronic Ischemic Renal Injury in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats. Journal of medicinal food, 20(10), 1002–1010.

da Silva Cristino Cordeiro, V., de Bem, G. F., da Costa, C. A., Santos, I. B., de Carvalho, L., Ognibene, D. T., da Rocha, A., de Carvalho, J. J., de Moura, R. S., and Resende, A. C. (2018). Euterpe oleracea Mart. seed extract protects against renal injury in diabetic and spontaneously hypertensive rats: role of inflammation and oxidative stress. European journal of nutrition, 57(2), 817–832.

De Barrios Freitas, R., Melato, F. A., Oliveira, J. M., Bastos, D. S., Cardoso, R. M., Leite, J. P., and Lima, L. M. (2017). Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Nutricion hospitalaria, 34(1), 186–192.

de Oliveira, P. R., da Costa, C. A., de Bem, G. F., Cordeiro, V. S., Santos, I. B., de Carvalho, L. C., da Conceição, E. P., Lisboa, P. C., Ognibene, D. T., Sousa, P. J., Martins, G. R., da Silva, A. J., de Moura, R. S., and Resende, A. C. (2015). Euterpe oleracea Mart.-Derived Polyphenols Protect Mice from Diet-Induced Obesity and Fatty Liver by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Excretion. PloS one, 10(12), e0143721.

Dos Reis, S. O., da Luz, T. C., da Silva Couto, C., Dalbó, J., Nunes, L. C., Martins, M. C., Silva, P. I., da Silva, A., and Trivilin, L. O. (2020). Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) Supplementation Reduces Aberrant Crypt Foci and Increases SOD1 Expression in the Colorectal Mucosa of Carcinogenesis-Induced Rats. Nutrition and cancer, 72(4), 610–619.

El Morsy, E. M., Ahmed, M. A., and Ahmed, A. A. (2015). Attenuation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by açaí extract preconditioning in a rat model. Life sciences, 123, 35–42.

Favoriti, P., Carbone, G., Greco, M., Pirozzi, F., Pirozzi, R. E., and Corcione, F. (2016). Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review. Updates in surgery, 68(1), 7–11.

Fiala E. S. (1977). Investigations into the metabolism and mode of action of the colon carcinogens 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and azoxymethane. Cancer, 40(5 Suppl), 2436–2445.<2436::aid-cncr2820400908>;2-u

Francis F. G. Analysis of Anthocyanins. Anthocyanins as Food colors. New York: Academic Press; 1982. p. 182-208.

Giusti, M. M. and Wrolstad, R. E. (2001) Anthocyanins. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. In R. E. Wrolstad (Ed.) Current Protocos in Food Analytical Chemistry (unit F1.2.1?1). John Wiley & Sons.

Gois, E., Jr, Daniel, R. A., Parra, R. S., Almeida, A. L., Rocha, J. J., Garcia, S. B., and Féres, O. (2012). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces COX-2 expression in a dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model of colorectal carcinogenesis. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, 39(3), 693–698.

Grecco, F. B., Schild, A. L., Soares, M. P., Marcolongo-Pereira, C., Estima-Silva, P., and Sallis, E. S. V. (2010). Aspectos epidemiológicos e padrões de lesões hepáticas em 35 surtos de intoxicação por Senecio spp. em bovinos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa veterinária brasileira, 30(5), 389-397.

Gupta, S. C., Reuter, S., Phromnoi, K., Park, B., Hema, P. S., Nair, M., and Aggarwal, B. B. (2011). Nimbolide sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL through reactive oxygen species- and ERK-dependent up-regulation of death receptors, p53, and Bax. The Journal of biological chemistry, 286(2), 1134–1146.

Hawks, A., Hicks, R. M., Holsman, J. W., and Magee, P. N. (1974). Morphological and biochemical effects of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and 1-methylhydrazine in rats and mice. British journal of cancer, 30(5), 429–439.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (2020 Apr 23). Global Cancer Observatory.

Kobaek-Larsen, M., Fenger, C., and Ritskes-Hoitinga, J. (2004). Secondary effects induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane in BDIX rats. APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica, 112(6), 319–329.

Kuri-García, A., González-Reyes, A., Aranda-Vargas, P. J., Moreno Celis, U., Mejía, C., García-Gasca, T., Ferríz-Martínez, R. A., de la Torre-Carbot, K., Saldaña Gutiérrez, C., and Chávez-Servín, J. L. (2019). Effect on nutritional markers of a model of aberrant crypt foci induced by azoxymethane and sodium dextran sulfate in Sprague Dawley rats. Nutricion hospitalaria, 36(5), 1163–1170.

Larangeira, L. L. S., Taha, M. O., Ferme, A., Lemos, R., and Plapler H. (1998). Localização de lesões tumorais induzidas pela 1,2-dimetilhidrazina e seu grau de atipia no colon de ratos. Acta cirúrgica brasileira [online], 13(3), 177-182. Available at: Cited: 20 Apr 2021.

Marques Cardoso, L., Dias Novaes, R., Aparecida de Castro, C., Azevedo Novello, A., Vilela Gonçalves, R., Ricci-Silva, M. E., de Oliveira Ramos, H. J., Gouveia Peluzio, M., and Viana Leite, J. P. (2015). Chemical composition, characterization of anthocyanins and antioxidant potential of Euterpe edulis fruits: applicability on genetic dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in mice. Nutricion hospitalaria, 32(2), 702–709.

Marques, E. S., Froder, J. G., Carvalho, J. C. T, Rosa, P. C. P., Perazzo, F. F., and Maistro E. L. (2016). Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) fruit oil (açaí), in mammalian cells in vivo. Food and chemical toxicological, 93, 13-19.

Oliveira, E. C., Leite, M. S., Miranda, J. A., Andrade, A. L., Garcia, S. B., Luquetti, A. O., & Moreira, H. (2001). Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection associated with low incidence of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis, 22(5), 737–740.

Ozkan, G., Ulusoy, S., Orem, A., Ersoz, S., Alkanat, M., Yucesan, F. B., Kaynar, K., & Al, S. (2012). Protective effect of the grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in a rat model of contrast-induced nephropathy. Kidney & blood pressure research, 35(6), 445–453.

Pereira, R. R., de Abreu, I. C., Guerra, J. F., Lage, N. N., Lopes, J. M., Silva, M., de Lima, W. G., Silva, M. E., and Pedrosa, M. L. (2016). Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2016, 8379105.

Perše, M., and Cerar, A. (2011). Morphological and molecular alterations in 1,2 dimethylhydrazine and azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Journal of biomedicine & biotechnology, 2011, 473964.

Ribeiro, J. C., Antunes, L. M., Aissa, A. F., Darin, J. D., De Rosso, V. V., Mercadante, A. Z., and Bianchi, M. (2010). Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects after acute and subacute treatments with açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on mice using the erythrocytes micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutation research, 695(1-2), 22–28.

Rogez, U. C. L. Açaí: preparo, composição e melhoramento da conservação. 1 ed. Belém: EDUFPA; 2000. 313p.

Sharma, A., and Sharma, K. K. (2011). Chemoprotective role of triphala against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride induced carcinogenic damage to mouse liver. Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB, 26(3), 290–295.

Soares, E. R., Monteiro, E. B., Da Silva, R. C., Batista, A., Sobreira, F., Mattos, T., Da Costa, C. A., and Daleprane, J. B. (2015). Compostos bioativos em alimentos, estresse oxidativo e inflamação: uma visão molecular da nutrição. Revista do hospital universitpario Pedro Ernesto, 14(3), 64-72.

Taketo, M. M., and Edelmann, W. (2009). Mouse models of colon cancer. Gastroenterology, 136(3), 780-98.

Torres, M. B. A. M., and Coelho, K. I. R. (2008). Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells1. Pesquisa veterinária brasileira, 28(1), 43-50.

Trivilin, L. O., Cassiano, D. C., Mendes, S. O., Borcoi, A. R., Archanjo, A. B., Cunha, E. R., Pulido, J. Z., Boeloni, J. N., and Conforti, A. M. A. da S. (2017). Exposure to cigarette smoke alters AgNOR number and HIF-1alpha expression in colorectal tubular adenocarcinoma in rats. International journal of clinical and experimental pathology, 10(3), 3822-3829.

Turra Pimpão, C., Maria Venancio Mangrich Rocha, R., Schaefer, R., Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo WouK, A., Maris Cirio, S., Mara Benato, E., Galeb do Amaral Gurgel, L., and Augusta Fronczak, M. (2005). Avaliação dos efeitos toxicológicos da ivermectina em cães. Revista Acadêmica Ciência Animal, 3(4), 19-24.

Unis A. (2015). Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats. Renal failure, 37(2), 310–317.

Wolter, S., and Frank, N. (1982). Metabolism of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in isolated perfused rat liver. Chemico-biological interactions, 42(3), 335–344.



  • There are currently no refbacks.