Análise de manifestações patológicas. Três estudos de caso / Analysis of building pathologies. Three case studies

Michela Monaco, Immacolata Bergamasco, Antonino Iannuzzo, Antonio Gesualdo

Abstract


Masonry buildings are the main part of the Architectural heritage in the World. The need of preservation for the historical memory, together with the exigence of fruition and use, has evidenced the need of appropriate analysis tools. In general, the stresses in masonry structures are usually considerably lower than those required for their material failure, so that the stability is mainly due to their shape and self weight. These aspects allowed in the past the simple realization of construction models in a reduced scale in order to assess the stability. As the history has pointed out, the behaviour of constructions is strongly linked to the workmanship and the good realization of the construction details. Local or global collapse can occur in fact due to pathologies arising during the construction or to bad realization of construction details. This paper deals with this last aspect, examining three different masonry buildings: the first one is a brick masonry building in Bologna: San Barbaziano Church, the others are two Roman domus in two different archaelogical sites in Campania: Villa Regina (Boscoreale, Napoli) and Villa dei Misteri (Pompeii, Napoli). The defects have been divided into two classes: structural defects and non structural ones. It is shown that structural defects can cause a global damage and could involve significant interventions.


Keywords


ancient masonry buildings; pathology, conservation.

References


Asteris, P. G., Douvika, M. G., Apostolopoulou, M., Moropoulou, A., 2017. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures. Materials, 10(8), 895.

Bergamasco, I., 2015. Progetto coperture di Villa Regina, Rivista di studi pompeiani, XXVI (in Italian)

Bergamasco, I., Bernabei, M., Macchioni, N., 2009. L'inquadramento storico di strutture in legno: l'esempio della copertura della chiesa di San Barbaziano a Bologna. In: Conservare e restaurare il legno; conoscenze, esperienze e prospettive, 205-216, Edizioni Arcadia Ricerche, Marghera-Venezia (In Italian).

Bergamasco, I., Fortunato, A., Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., 2017. A no-tension model for the analysis of combined masonry vaults, Atti del XXIII Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Meccanica Teorica ed Applicata, Salerno, Italy, September 4-7.

Bergamasco, I., Gesualdo, A., Guerriero, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M. 2016. Roofing interventions in the Pompeii Tragic Poet House, Proc. XIV International Forum “Le vie dei mercanti”, Napoli - Capri, Italy, La Scuola di Pitagora Editrice, Naples.

Bergamasco, I., Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., 2018. An integrated approach to the conservation of the roofing structures in the Pompeian domus, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 31, 141-151.

Bergamasco, I., Marzo, A., Marghella, G., Carpani, B., 2017. In-situ experimental campaign on the covering structures of “Villa dei Misteri” in Pompeii. Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, 1-17.Bergamasco, I., Poggioli, C., 2012. Rapporto conclusivo della campagna diagnostica svolta a cura della Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici dell'Emilia Romagna riguardante le indagini propedeutiche al progetto di restauro della Ex Chiesa di San Barbaziano, MiBACT (in Italian).

Bosiljkov, V., Uranjek, M., Žarnić, R., Bokan-Bosiljkov, V., 2010. An integrated diagnostic approach for the assessment of historic masonry structures. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11(3), 239-249.

Buonocore, G., Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., Savino, M.T. 2014. Improvement of Seismic Performance of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings using Steel Frames, in: Civil-Comp Proceedings: 106, B.H.V. Topping and P. Iványi eds., Civil Comp Press, Kippen, Stirlingshire, U.K., ISBN 978-1-905088-61-4, doi: 10.4203/ccp.106.117

Cachioni, M., Kühl, B. M., 2020. Engenho central de Piracicaba: recuperação da memória arquitetônica a partir da arqueologia industrial. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(2), 7911- 7929.

Carvalho, A.R.A., Da Silva, H.F., Lagoa, D.C., Neto, O.J.D.A.G., Pereira, D.R., Bôas, I.D.C.C.V., Coelho, G.T.F., 2021. Prevenção patológica: análise e caracterização de corpos de prova de concreto por meio de raio X. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(4), 36599-36618.

de Barros Gonçalves, W., Araújo, D. M. P., Silveira, R. V., da Cruz Machado, A. E. A., de Sousa Moraes, C., Oliveira, L. L. S., Torres, M. A. L., 2021. O estado da arte do patrimônio na América Latina subtema 2: documentação, conservação e restauração-conservação preventiva e prevenção de risco. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(5), 43808-43828.

De Matteis G., Corlito V., Guadagnuolo M. and Tafuro A. 2019. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment and Retrofitting Strategies of Italian Masonry Churches of the Alife-Caiazzo Diocese in Caserta, Int. J. Architectural Heritage, 14(8), 1180-1195.

De Ponti, R. D., Cantini, L., Bolondi, L., 2017. Evaluation of the masonry and timber structures of San Francisco Church in Santiago de Cuba through nondestructive diagnostic methods. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 24(11), 1-17.

Faggiano, B., Grippa, M. R., Calderoni, B., 2013. Non-destructive tests and bending tests on chestnut structural timber. Advanced Materials Research, 778, 167-174.

Frunzio, G., Di Gennaro, L., Guadagnuolo, M., 2019. Palazzo Ducale in Parete: remarks on code provisions, Int. J. Masonry Research and Innovation, 4(1-2).

Gesualdo, A., Calderoni, B., Iannuzzo, A., Fortunato, A., Monaco, M. 2020. Minimum energy strategies for the in-plane behaviour of masonry, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 14(51), 376- 385.

Gesualdo, A., Calderoni, B., Sandoli, A., Monaco, M. 2019. Minimum energy approach for the in-plane shear resistance of masonry panels, Ingegneria Sismica, 36(1), 42-53.

Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., Penta, F., 2017. Rocking of a rigid block freestanding on a flat pedestal, Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A, doi: 10.1631/jzus.A1700061

Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., 2010. Seismic vulnerability reduction of existing masonry buildings. Modelling of retrofitting techniques. In: Urban Habitat Construction Under Catastrophic Events, 1, 853-858, London, New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., 2015. Constitutive behaviour of quasi-brittle materials with anisotropic friction, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 12(4), 695-710.

Giorgi, L., Matracchi, P., 2017. Architectural Evolution: Modifications, Alterations, and Restorations through Centuries. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 31(5), 04017046.

Guadagnuolo, M., Monaco, M. 2009. Out of plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry walls. In: Protection of Historical Buildings, 2, 1177-1180, London, New York: CRC Press

Guadagnuolo, M.; Aurilio, M.; Basile, A.; Faella, G. 2020a. Modulus of Elasticity and Compressive Strength of Tuff Masonry: Results of a Wide Set of Flat-Jack Tests. Buildings, 10, 84.

Guadagnuolo, M.; Aurilio, M.; Faella, G., 2020b. Retrofit assessment of masonry buildings through simplified structural analysis, Fracture and Structural Integrity, 14, 398-409.

Guadagnuolo, M.; Faella, G., 2020c. Simplified Design of Masonry Ring-Beams Reinforced by Flax Fibers for Existing Buildings Retrofitting. Buildings 2020, 10, 12.

Iannuzzo, A., Angelillo, M., De Chiara, E., De Guglielmo, F., De Serio, F., Ribera, F., Gesualdo, A., 2018. Modelling the cracks produced by settlements in masonry structures. Meccanica, 53(7), 1857-1873.

Krentowski, J., Chyzy, T., Dunaj, P., 2017. Sudden collapse of a 19th-century masonry structure during its renovation process. Engineering Failure Analysis, 82, 540-553.

Monaco M, Aurilio M, Tafuro A, Guadagnuolo M., 2021a. Sustainable Mortars for Application in the Cultural Heritage Field, Materials, 14(3), 598.

Monaco M., Faella G., Guadagnuolo M., 2021b. Analysis of pozzolanic mortars for restoration, International Journal of Conservation Science, 12(1), 41-50.

Monaco, M., Bergamasco, I, Betti, M. 2018. A no-tension analysis for a brick masonry vault with lunette, Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 13(5), 703-714.

Monaco, M., Bergamasco, I., Iannuzzo, A., Gesualdo, A., 2020. Building pathologies. Analysis of three case studies, Proceedings of CINPAR2021, International Conference on Pathology and Construction Rehabilitation, 1193-1201.

Monaco, M., Calderoni, B., Iannuzzo, A., Gesualdo, A., 2018. Behaviour of in-plane loaded masonry panels, Procedia Structural Integrity, 11, 388-393.

Monaco, M., Guadagnuolo, M., Gesualdo, A., 2014. The role of friction in the seismic risk mitigation of freestanding art objects. Natural Hazards, 73(2), 389-402.

Monaco, M., Iannuzzo, A., Tafuro, A., Gesualdo, A., 2020. Dynamic analysis of a Pompeian domus, Proc. EURODYN2020, EASD International Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2, 4922- 4929.

Souza, P. V., Nepomuceno, J. P., 2020. Políticas de conservação do patrimônio, O Caso de São João Marcos. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(1), 2984-2999.

Asteris, P. G., Douvika, M. G., Apostolopoulou, M., Moropoulou, A., 2017. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures. Materials, 10(8), 895.

Bergamasco, I., 2015. Progetto coperture di Villa Regina, Rivista di studi pompeiani, XXVI (in Italian)

Bergamasco, I., Bernabei, M., Macchioni, N., 2009. L'inquadramento storico di strutture in legno: l'esempio della copertura della chiesa di San Barbaziano a Bologna. In: Conservare e restaurare il legno; conoscenze, esperienze e prospettive, 205-216, Edizioni Arcadia Ricerche, Marghera-Venezia (In Italian).

Bergamasco, I., Fortunato, A., Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., 2017. A no-tension model for the analysis of combined masonry vaults, Atti del XXIII Congresso dell'Associazione Italiana di Meccanica Teorica ed Applicata, Salerno, Italy, September 4-7.

Bergamasco, I., Gesualdo, A., Guerriero, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M. 2016. Roofing interventions in the Pompeii Tragic Poet House, Proc. XIV International Forum “Le vie dei mercanti”, Napoli - Capri, Italy, La Scuola di Pitagora Editrice, Naples.

Bergamasco, I., Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., 2018. An integrated approach to the conservation of the roofing structures in the Pompeian domus, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 31, 141-151.

Bergamasco, I., Marzo, A., Marghella, G., Carpani, B., 2017. In-situ experimental campaign on the covering structures of “Villa dei Misteri” in Pompeii. Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, 1-17.Bergamasco, I., Poggioli, C., 2012. Rapporto conclusivo della campagna diagnostica svolta a cura della Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici dell'Emilia Romagna riguardante le indagini propedeutiche al progetto di restauro della Ex Chiesa di San Barbaziano, MiBACT (in Italian).

Bosiljkov, V., Uranjek, M., Žarnić, R., Bokan-Bosiljkov, V., 2010. An integrated diagnostic approach for the assessment of historic masonry structures. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 11(3), 239-249.

Buonocore, G., Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., Savino, M.T. 2014. Improvement of Seismic Performance of Unreinforced Masonry Buildings using Steel Frames, in: Civil-Comp Proceedings: 106, B.H.V. Topping and P. Iványi eds., Civil Comp Press, Kippen, Stirlingshire, U.K., ISBN 978-1-905088-61-4, doi: 10.4203/ccp.106.117

Cachioni, M., Kühl, B. M., 2020. Engenho central de Piracicaba: recuperação da memória arquitetônica a partir da arqueologia industrial. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(2), 7911- 7929.

Carvalho, A.R.A., Da Silva, H.F., Lagoa, D.C., Neto, O.J.D.A.G., Pereira, D.R., Bôas, I.D.C.C.V., Coelho, G.T.F., 2021. Prevenção patológica: análise e caracterização de corpos de prova de concreto por meio de raio X. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(4), 36599-36618.

de Barros Gonçalves, W., Araújo, D. M. P., Silveira, R. V., da Cruz Machado, A. E. A., de Sousa Moraes, C., Oliveira, L. L. S., Torres, M. A. L., 2021. O estado da arte do patrimônio na América Latina subtema 2: documentação, conservação e restauração-conservação preventiva e prevenção de risco. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(5), 43808-43828.

De Matteis G., Corlito V., Guadagnuolo M. and Tafuro A. 2019. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment and Retrofitting Strategies of Italian Masonry Churches of the Alife-Caiazzo Diocese in Caserta, Int. J. Architectural Heritage, 14(8), 1180-1195.

De Ponti, R. D., Cantini, L., Bolondi, L., 2017. Evaluation of the masonry and timber structures of San Francisco Church in Santiago de Cuba through nondestructive diagnostic methods. Structural Control and Health Monitoring, 24(11), 1-17.

Faggiano, B., Grippa, M. R., Calderoni, B., 2013. Non-destructive tests and bending tests on chestnut structural timber. Advanced Materials Research, 778, 167-174.

Frunzio, G., Di Gennaro, L., Guadagnuolo, M., 2019. Palazzo Ducale in Parete: remarks on code provisions, Int. J. Masonry Research and Innovation, 4(1-2).

Gesualdo, A., Calderoni, B., Iannuzzo, A., Fortunato, A., Monaco, M. 2020. Minimum energy strategies for the in-plane behaviour of masonry, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 14(51), 376- 385.

Gesualdo, A., Calderoni, B., Sandoli, A., Monaco, M. 2019. Minimum energy approach for the in-plane shear resistance of masonry panels, Ingegneria Sismica, 36(1), 42-53.

Gesualdo, A., Iannuzzo, A., Monaco, M., Penta, F., 2017. Rocking of a rigid block freestanding on a flat pedestal, Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE A, doi: 10.1631/jzus.A1700061

Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., 2010. Seismic vulnerability reduction of existing masonry buildings. Modelling of retrofitting techniques. In: Urban Habitat Construction Under Catastrophic Events, 1, 853-858, London, New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.

Gesualdo, A., Monaco, M., 2015. Constitutive behaviour of quasi-brittle materials with anisotropic friction, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 12(4), 695-710.

Giorgi, L., Matracchi, P., 2017. Architectural Evolution: Modifications, Alterations, and Restorations through Centuries. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 31(5), 04017046.

Guadagnuolo, M., Monaco, M. 2009. Out of plane behaviour of unreinforced masonry walls. In: Protection of Historical Buildings, 2, 1177-1180, London, New York: CRC Press

Guadagnuolo, M.; Aurilio, M.; Basile, A.; Faella, G. 2020a. Modulus of Elasticity and Compressive Strength of Tuff Masonry: Results of a Wide Set of Flat-Jack Tests. Buildings, 10, 84.

Guadagnuolo, M.; Aurilio, M.; Faella, G., 2020b. Retrofit assessment of masonry buildings through simplified structural analysis, Fracture and Structural Integrity, 14, 398-409.

Guadagnuolo, M.; Faella, G., 2020c. Simplified Design of Masonry Ring-Beams Reinforced by Flax Fibers for Existing Buildings Retrofitting. Buildings 2020, 10, 12.

Iannuzzo, A., Angelillo, M., De Chiara, E., De Guglielmo, F., De Serio, F., Ribera, F., Gesualdo, A., 2018. Modelling the cracks produced by settlements in masonry structures. Meccanica, 53(7), 1857-1873.

Krentowski, J., Chyzy, T., Dunaj, P., 2017. Sudden collapse of a 19th-century masonry structure during its renovation process. Engineering Failure Analysis, 82, 540-553.

Monaco M, Aurilio M, Tafuro A, Guadagnuolo M., 2021a. Sustainable Mortars for Application in the Cultural Heritage Field, Materials, 14(3), 598.

Monaco M., Faella G., Guadagnuolo M., 2021b. Analysis of pozzolanic mortars for restoration, International Journal of Conservation Science, 12(1), 41-50.

Monaco, M., Bergamasco, I, Betti, M. 2018. A no-tension analysis for a brick masonry vault with lunette, Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, 13(5), 703-714.

Monaco, M., Bergamasco, I., Iannuzzo, A., Gesualdo, A., 2020. Building pathologies. Analysis of three case studies, Proceedings of CINPAR2021, International Conference on Pathology and Construction Rehabilitation, 1193-1201.

Monaco, M., Calderoni, B., Iannuzzo, A., Gesualdo, A., 2018. Behaviour of in-plane loaded masonry panels, Procedia Structural Integrity, 11, 388-393.

Monaco, M., Guadagnuolo, M., Gesualdo, A., 2014. The role of friction in the seismic risk mitigation of freestanding art objects. Natural Hazards, 73(2), 389-402.

Monaco, M., Iannuzzo, A., Tafuro, A., Gesualdo, A., 2020. Dynamic analysis of a Pompeian domus, Proc. EURODYN2020, EASD International Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2, 4922- 4929.

Souza, P. V., Nepomuceno, J. P., 2020. Políticas de conservação do patrimônio, O Caso de São João Marcos. Brazilian Journal of Development, 6(1), 2984-2999.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n11-214

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