Fossil fuel and the global energy transition: regulation and standardisation as panacea for a more sustainable world energy order / O combustível fóssil e a transição energética global: regulação e normalização como panaceia para uma ordem energética mundial mais sustentável

Eduardo G. Pereira, Alberto José Fossa, Eghosa O. Ekhator, Dickson E. Omukoro, Edmilson Moutinho dos Santos, Seyed Amirhamed Tabelian, Alexandre de Barros Gallo, Clara Dybwad Fossa, Cylon Liaw, Bruna Toguedani

Abstract


The transition from fossil fuels to more sustainable sources of energy has become a topical issue that is likely to remain in the front burner of stakeholders as governments and businesses gradually move towards low-carbon economies. This move has been partly accelerated by the need to combat climate change and greenhouse gases (GHG). The move towards more sustainable energy sources has led to an upsurge in the number of international mechanisms such as the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change (COP 15) (and a plethora of regional and domestic initiatives). Regulations and standardisation have been identified as strategic tools that can play critical roles in the drive towards energy transition. Regulation in this context refers to laws or other form of instruments with legal backing and having cohesiveness, while Standardisation entails the voluntary process of developing technical specifications based on consensus among stakeholders. The focus of this paper is how these two strategic tools interact and how they can be used to, enhance creativity, and further accelerate the drive towards energy transition and therefore more sustainable sources of energy.

 


Keywords


standards, regulations, COP15, GHG, CCUS and energy transition.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ciotta, Mariana and Tassinari, Colombo, “Preliminary basin scale assessment of CO2 geological storage potential in Santos Basin, Southeastern Brazil: Merluza Field study case”, Brazilian Journal of Development, v. 6, n. 9, p.65961-65977, Sept. 2020.

González, Carlos and others, “Sustainable development, world energy transition after fossil fuels and the political thinking of the Latin American left”, Brazilian Journal of Development, v. 5, n. 11, p.23334-23355, Nov. 2019.

Gould, Rick, “Los puertos ponen rumbo a la acción por el clima”, published on ISO®, 2022.

available: https://www.iso.org/contents/news/2022/02/infrastructures-portuaires-cap-s.html

ISO (2019). Publication on Good Standardization Practices. ISBN 978-92-67-10986-2.

available: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/store/en/PUB100440.pdf accessed on the 7th of March 2022.

ISO (2015). Publication on Using and referencing ISO and IEC standards to support public policy. ISBN 978-92-67-10633-5.

Available: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/store/en/PUB100358.pdf accessed on the 7th of March 2022.

K Vibhute and F Aynalem, Legal Research Methods: Teaching Material (Prepared under the sponsorship of the Justice and Legal System Research Institute 2009) 70-72.

Sonia Graham, and others, ‘Justice Approaches: Methods and Methodology in Environmental Justice Research in Anna Lukasiewicz, Steven Dovers, Libby Robin, Jennifer Mckay, Steven Schilizzi, and Sonia Graham (eds) Natural Resources and Environmental Justice: Australian Perspectives (CSIRO Publishing 2017) 48.

T Hunter, ‘the Development of Shale Gas and Coal Bed Methane in Australia: Best Practice for International Jurisdictions?’ (2016) 38 (2) HJIL 367, 374.

Morgan, Bronwen and Yeung, Karen, An Introduction to Law and Regulation: Text and Materials, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.16.

Brownsword, Roger and others, The Oxford Handbook of Law, Regulation, and Technology, Oxford University Press, Jul 2017, p. 297.

https://www.congress.gov/legislative-process , https://www.senate.gov/legislative/common/briefing/leg_laws_acts.htm accessed on 8th of March 2022.

Lampland, Martha and Star, Susan, Standards and Their Stories, How Quantifying, Classifying, and Formalizing Practices Shape Everyday Life, Cornell University Press, 2009.

https://www.standards.org.au/standards-development/what-is-standard

Jagu, C., Improving European Union ecodesign standardization, in Bessede, Jean-Luc, et al., Eco-friendly Innovations in Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks, Elsevier Ltd., 2015, p.65.

https://www.iso.org/news/ref2783.html accessed on 9th of March 2022

HO, Jae-Yun, A Systems Perspective on Standardisation in Technological Innovation: A Conceptual Framework and a Process Model Supporting Strategic Policy Foresight. Doctoral thesis, University of Cambridge, p.18-19, 2017.

HO, Jae-Yun, A Systems Perspective on Standardisation in Technological Innovation: A Conceptual Framework and a Process Model Supporting Strategic Policy Foresight. Doctoral thesis, University of Cambridge, p.18-19, 2017.

Yang, J. and others, "Impact of coupling of technological innovation and standardisation on industrial development",International Journal of Emerging Markets, 2022.

Nerland, Monika and Karseth, “The knowledge work of professional associations: approaches to standardisation and forms of legitimisation”, Journal of Education and Work, v. 28, p. 1-23, 2013.

Castka, Pavel, “The Role of Standards in the Development and Delivery of Sustainable Products: A Research Framework”, MDPI, Sustainability Journal, Dec. 2020.

Brady, Ann, How Standards Can Lead to Better Lives, ISO website, Sept. 2019. Available: https://www.iso.org/news/ref2427.html accessed on the 15th of March 2022.

Blind, Knut, “Handbook of Innovation Policy Impact”, chapter 14 “The impact of standardisation and standards on innovation“, 2016.

J. Ho and E. O'Sullivan, "The evolving role of standardisation in technological innovation: the case of photovoltaics," 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT), pp. 1-8, 2015.

Matamala, A., and Orero, P., Standardising accessibility: Transferring knowledge to society. Journal of Audiovisual Translation, 1(1), 139–154, 2018.

Lewis, Barnaby, “STANDARDS COOPERATION IS KEY TO MAKING AI AND SMART CITIES A REALITY”, April 2019. Available: https://www.iso.org/news/ref2381.html accessed on the 15th of March 2022.

ISO (2015). Publication on Standardization and Innovation. ISBN 978-92-67-10644-1 Available: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/store/en/PUB100404.pdf accessed on 14th of March 2022.

Nalule, V, 2021, How to Respond to Energy Transitions in Africa: Introducing the Energy Progression Dialogue in Victoria Nalule (ed.) Energy Transitions and the Future of the African Energy Sector. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2021) 4

Eghosa Ekhator and Godswill Agbaitoro, ‘Energy law and Policy in Nigeria with reflection on the International Energy Charter and domestication of the African Charter' in Jegede, O.A., and Adeola, R. (eds.). ‘Governance in Nigeria post-1999: Revisiting the democratic ‘new dawn’ of the Fourth Republic’. (Pretoria University Law Press, 2019)

Yinka Omorogbe, ‘Universal Access to Modern Energy Services: The Centrality of the Law’ in Yinka Omorogbe and Ada Ordor (eds) Ending Africa's Energy Deficit and the Law (Oxford University Press, 2018) 9-10

Lawrence Atsegbua, Introduction – Paradigm Shift: From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy’ in Lawrence Atsegbua and Sunday Daudu (eds.) Beyond Fossil Fuels: Renewable Energy Law and Policy (Fifers Publishers, 2019) 1.

Wood, G, 2020, ‘Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World’ in Geoffrey Wood and Keith Baker (eds.) The Palgrave Handbook of Managing Fossil Fuels and Energy Transitions (Palgrave Macmillan 2020)

(United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2018. Also cited in Wood ibid 3

Savaresi, Annalisa, “The Paris Agreement: a new beginning?”, ,Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, p. 16-26, 2016.

Horowitz, Cara, Introductory Note to Paris Agreement, International Legal Materials, Cambridge University Press, v. 55 , p. 740 - 755, 2016

Vidal, J, and Vaughan, A, Paris Climate Agreement Guardian Newspaper ‘may signal end of fossil fuel era’ (Guardian Newspaper, 13 December 2015) https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/13/paris-climate-agreement-signal-end-of-fossil-fuel-era

Nalule, V, 2020, ‘Transitioning to a Low Carbon Economy: Is Africa Ready to Bid Farewell to Fossil Fuels?’ in Geoffrey Wood and Keith Baker (eds.) The Palgrave Handbook of Managing Fossil Fuels and Energy Transitions (Palgrave Macmillan 2020)

Mazzone, A.,2020), Energy transition in isolated communities of the Brazilian Amazon in The Regulation and Policy of Latin American Energy Transitions (pp. 319-330). Elsevier.

Irene Pallua, "A hitchhiker’s guide to quantitative energy studies", Journal of Energy History/Revue d'Histoire de l'Énergie [Online], n°1, published 04 December 2018,

Dorian, J. P., D. R. Simbeck, and M. T. Shealy. "The Global Energy Transition-Views from Energy Economists." Oil, Gas & Energy Law 19, no. 1 (2021).

Parker, Charles and others, “Assessing the European Union’s global climate change leadership: from Copenhagen to the Paris Agreement”, Journal of European Integration, 39:2, 239-252, 2017.

Henriques, Irene and Sadorsky, Perry, “Investor implications of divesting from fossil fuels”, Global Finance Journal, Volume 38, Pages 30-44, Nov 2018.

Hanif, Imran and others, “Fossil fuels, foreign direct investment, and economic growth have triggered CO2 emissions in emerging Asian economies: Some empirical evidence”, Energy, v. 171, p. 493-501, March 2019.

Nalule, V. R., & Mu, X. S. (2020). Should Countries Fire Sell their Oil & Gas Assets? Addressing the Mis-conceptions Surrounding the Continued Role of Fossil Fuels in the Energy Transition Era. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The), 11(2), 432-440.

Egyedi, Tineke and Spirco, Jaroslav, “Standards in transitions: Catalyzing infrastructure change”, Journal Futures, v. 43, p. 947-960, Nov. 2011.

World Economic Forum, ‘Fostering Effective Energy Transition: A Fact-Based Framework to support Decision-Making’ (2018)

Balthasar, A., Schreurs, M. A., & Varone, F. (2020). Energy transition in Europe and the United States: policy entrepreneurs and veto players in federalist systems.

Hai-Bin, Zhang and other, “U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response”, Advances in Climate Change Research, v. 8, p. 220-225, Dec. 2017.

Oliver Milman, ‘Biden returns US to Paris climate accord hours after becoming president’ (Guardian, Wednesday 20 January 2021). Available: Biden returns US to Paris climate accord hours after becoming president | Climate change | The Guardian

Fiona Harvey, ‘The Paris agreement five years on: is it strong enough to avert climate catastrophe?’ (Guardian Newspaper, Tuesday 8 December 2020). Available: The Paris agreement five years on: is it strong enough to avert climate catastrophe? | Environment | The Guardian

Jale Tosun, Energy Policy in the Oxford Research Encyclopaedia of Politics 2017

Hasanuzzaman, M. and Abd Rahim, N. (eds) Energy for Sustainable Development: Demand, Supply, Conversion and Management (Academic Press 2019)

The Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) website About the Clean Energy Ministerial | Clean Energy Ministerial |About the Clean Energy Ministerial | Advancing Clean Energy Together

Tosun, Jale and Rinscheid, Adrian, “The Clean Energy Ministerial: Motivation for and policy consequences of membership”, v. 42, issue: 1, p. 114-129, 2020.

Daszkiewicz, K., 2020. Policy and Regulation of Energy Transition. In Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra (eds) The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition (Springer, Cham) 203-226

International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), ‘International Standardisation in the field of Renewable Energy’ (2013) 4

How standards benefit consumers Available: https://www.iso.org/sites/ConsumersStandards/2_benefits.html accessed on the 12th of March 2022.

Hafner, M., and Tagliapietra, S., 2020, The geopolitics of the global energy transition,Springer Nature.)

Schwerhoff, Gregor, and Mouhamadou Sy. "Developing Africa’s energy mix." Climate policy 19.1 (2019): 108-124

Agbaitoro, G. A. (2017). Is having a robust energy mix a panacea for resolving the energy crisis in Nigeria?. Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review, 7(4), 7-16, 8. Also see, Ogbumgbada, C. C. (2017). Developing an effective legal framework for renewable energy utilization in Nigeria. Renewable Energy L. & Pol'y Rev., 8, 45.

Daszkiewicz, K., 2020. Policy and Regulation of Energy Transition. In Manfred Hafner and Simone Tagliapietra (eds) The Geopolitics of the Global Energy Transition (Springer, Cham) 203-226

OECD (2020), Managing Environmental and Energy Transitions for Regions and Cities, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/f0c6621f-en.

UN Secretariat of the High-level Dialogue on Energy (2021). Theme report on energy Transition towards the achievement of SDG 7 and net zero emissions. Available: https://www.un.org/sites/un2.un.org/files/2021twg_2-062321.pdf accessed 12th of March 2022.

Global Energy Transformation, A Roadmap to 2050, IRENA (International Renewable Energy Agency), 2018. Available at https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/Apr/IRENA_Report_GET_2018.pdf

accessed on the 12th of March 2022.

McFarlane, S, 2020, ‘BP Bets Future on Green Energy But Investors Remain Wary’ (The World Street Journal, 29th Sept. 2020) < https://www.wsj.com/articles/bp-bets-future-on-green-energy-but-investors-remain-wary-11601402304#:~:text=The%20deal%20is%20part%20of,investment%20in%20solar%20business%20Lightsource.>

UK PACT (2021). Just energy transition: Exploring global mitigation measures in a local context.Available:https://ore.exeter.ac.uk/repository/bitstream/handle/10871/127699/UKPACT_PR_Thies_Just%20energy%20transition_Exploring-global-mitigation-measures.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y accessed on 12th of March 2022.

Rojey, Alexandre, “Energy and Climate: How to achieve a successful energy transition”, Society of Chemical Industry, ISBN: 978-0-470-74427-7, 2009.

IRENA (2018). “Innovation Priorities to Transform the Energy System an Overview for Policy Makers”, Available: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/May/IRENA_Innovation_priorities_2018.pdf accessed on 12th of March 2022.

https://ourworldindata.org/energy-mix accessed on the 14th of March 2022.

IRENA (2018). “Innovation Priorities to Transform the Energy System an Overview for Policy Makers”, Available:https://www.irena.org//media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/May/IRENA_Innovation_priorities_2018.pdf accessed on 12th of March 2022.

ISO (2015). Publication on Standardization and Innovation. ISBN 978-92-67-10644-1 Available: https://www.iso.org/files/live/sites/isoorg/files/store/en/PUB100404.pdf accessed on 14th of March 2022.

Bertoldi P., Guidebook 'How to develop a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) – PART 3 – Policies, key actions, good practices for mitigation and adaptation to climate change and Financing SECAP(s), EUR 29412 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018, ISBN 978-92-79-96927-0.

Meadowcroft, James, “Engaging with the politics of sustainability transitions”, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, p. 70-75, 2011.

.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv8n5-464