As contribuições das consultorias em gestão (CGs) para inovação aberta (IA) em micro e pequenas empresas (MPEs)/ The contributions of management consultants (CGs) to open innovation (IA) in small and medium enterprises (SMEs)

Silvio Bitencourt da Silva

Abstract


Neste estudo com teor de ensaio teórico discutimos as contribuições das Consultorias em Gestão (CGs) para a Inovação Aberta (IA) em Micro e Pequenas Empresas (MPEs). O corpo de literatura utilizado neste estudo sugere que as CGs são uma fonte de conhecimento externo para MPEs que adotam estratégias de IA de fora para dentro, e co-produtores de problemas e soluções com as MPEs que adotam a estratégia de IA acoplada. Objetivamente, o conhecimento das CGs aportado nas MPEs é traduzido por meio de métodos e ferramentas, casos e a experiência de consultores individuais, além de como os consultores podem usar (ou não) esse conhecimento de acordo com cada situação específica criando um tipo de conhecimento que se relaciona a temas como identidade e poder e que é útil na condução de comportamentos concretos asociados a abordagens incrementais e padronizadas. Estas constatações, associadas a revisão teórica conduzida neste ensaio, propiciam a obtenção de novos discernimentos sobre as contribuições das CGs para IA em MPEs. Indicam o potencial existente na exploração do aparato conceitual e analítico em torno desta relação em diferentes perspectivas, sendo elas: o direcionamento pelas áreas de atividade, os tipos específicos de conhecimento relacionados a CG, o papel das CGs, os tipos de agentes envolvidos, os diferentes níveis de análise, tais como a indústria, empresa e projetos, e diferentes contextos, condicionadas a experiência do consultor, a intensidade da colaboração e a visão comum. Tais perspectivas, acrescidas do porte da empresa e a adoção de estratégias de IA nos permitem apontar três proposições teóricas que formam o “fio condutor” para futuras investigações empíricas e reflexões práticas sobre as contribuições das CGs para IA em MPEs em torno das suas condicionantes, do tipo de conhecimento envolvido e da relação com as estratégias de IA em MPEs.


Keywords


conhecimento, consultorias em gestão; fontes de inovação; inovação aberta; micro e pequenas empresas.

References


Abouzeedan, A., Klofsten, M. and Hedner, T. (2013). Internetization management as a facilitator for managing innovation in high-technology smaller firms. Global Business Review, 14 (1), 121-136.

Abrahamson, E. (1996). Management fashion. Academy of management review, 21(1), 254-285.

Adams, S. M., & Flynn, P. M. (2005). Actionable knowledge: Consulting to promote women on boards. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(5), 435-450.

Bogers, M., Chesbrough, H., & Moedas, C. (2018). Open Innovation: Research, Practices, and Policies. California Management Review, 60(2), 5-16.

Bogers, M., Chesbrough, H., Heaton, S., & Teece, D. J. (2019). Strategic Management of Open Innovation: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective. California Management Review, 62(1), 77-94.

Bougrain, F. and Haudeville, B. (2002). Innovation, collaboration and SMEs internal research capacities. Research Policy 31(5), pp. 735–747.

Bronnenmayer, M., Wirtz, B. W., & Göttel, V. (2016b). Determinants of perceived success in management consulting: An empirical investigation from the consultant perspective. Management Research Review, 39(6), 706-738.

Bronnenmayer, M., Wirtz, B. W., & Göttel, V. (2016a). Success factors of management consulting. Review of Managerial Science, 10(1), 1-34.

Bruhn, M., Karlan, D., & Schoar, A. (2018). The impact of consulting services on small and medium enterprises: Evidence from a randomized trial in Mexico. Journal of Political Economy, 126(2), 635-687.

Brunswicker, S., & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2015). Open innovation in small and medium?sized enterprises (SMEs): External knowledge sourcing strategies and internal organizational facilitators. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(4), 1241-1263.

Canato, A., & Giangreco, A. (2011). Gurus or wizards? A review of the role of management consultants. European Management Review, 8(4), 231-244.

Cerruti, C., Tavoletti, E., & Grieco, C. (2019). Management consulting: a review of fifty years of scholarly research. Management Research Review.

Cesário, M., Fernandes, S., Jesus, B., & Monteiro Barata, J. (2015). Sources of innovation: The case of Portuguese consultancy sector. Journal of technology management & innovation, 10(3), 44-52.

Chaston, I. and Scott, G.J. (2012). Entrepreneurship and open innovation in an emerging economy. Management Decision, 50 (7), 1161-1177.

Chesbrough, H. (2006). Open business models: How to thrive in the new innovation landscape. Harvard Business Press.

Chesbrough, H. (2017). The Future of Open Innovation: The future of open innovation is more extensive, more collaborative, and more engaged with a wider variety of participants. Research-Technology Management, 60(1), 35-38.

Chesbrough, H. W. (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business Press, Boston.

Chesbrough, H. W. and Bogers, M. (2014). Explicating Open Innovation : Clarifying an Emerging Paradigm for Understanding Innovation. In. Chesbrough et al. (eds.) New Frontiers in Open Innovation. Oxford University Press, USA, 344p.

Clark, J. M., Quast, L. N., Jang, S., Wohkittel, J., Center, B., Edwards, K., & Bovornusvakool, W. (2016). GLOBE Study Culture Clusters: Can They Be Found in Importance Ratings of Managerial Competencies?. European Journal of Training and Development, 40(7), 534-553.

Collins, D. (2016). Constituting best practice in management consulting. Culture and Organization, 22(5), 409-429.

D’Ambrosio, A., Gabriele, R., Schiavone, F., & Villasalero, M. (2017). The role of openness in explaining innovation performance in a regional context. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(2), 389-408.

D?browska, J., Fiegenbaum, I., & Kutvonen, A. (2013). Mapping The Perception And Reality Of Open Innovation. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(06), 1-25.

Dahlander, L., & Gann, D. M. (2010). How open is innovation?. Research policy, 39(6), 699-709.

De Marco, C. E., Martelli, I., & Di Minin, A. (2020). European SMEs’ engagement in open innovation When the important thing is to win and not just to participate, what should innovation policy do?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 152, 119843.

Drnevich, P. L., Mahoney, J. T., & Schendel, D. (2020). Has strategic management research lost its way. Strategic Management Review, 1(1).

Edwards, T., Delbridge, R. and Munday, M. (2005). Understanding innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises: a process manifest. Technovation, 25(10), 1119–1127.

Engwall, L., & Kipping, M. (2013). Management consulting: dynamics, debates, and directions. International journal of strategic communication, 7(2), 84-98.

Enkel, E.; Gassmann, O. & Chesbrough, H. (2009) Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R&D Management. 39 (4), 311–16.

Farrukh, C., Athanassopoulou, N., & Ilevbare, I. (2019). How inbound open innovation helps SMEs learn and improve: knowledge transfer from university to industry through direct coaching.

Freel, M., & Robson, P. J. (2017). Appropriation strategies and open innovation in SMEs. International Small Business Journal, 35(5), 578-596.

Gassmann, O. (2006) Opening up the innovation process: towards an agenda. R&D Management, 36 (3), 223-226.

Greco, M., Grimaldi, M., & Cricelli, L. (2019). Benefits and costs of open innovation: the BeCO framework. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 31(1), 53-66.

Haas, M. R., & Hansen, M. T. (2005). When using knowledge can hurt performance: The value of organizational capabilities in a management consulting company. Strategic Management Journal, 26(1), 1-24.

Hossain, M. (2013). Open innovation: so far and a way forward. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 10(1), 30-41.

Hossain, M. and Kauranen, I. (2016). Open innovation in SMEs: a systematic literature review. Journal of Strategy and Management, 9(1), 58–73.

ISO (2017). Guidelines for management consultancy services 20700:2017. Disponível em: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:20700:ed-1:v1:en. Acesso em: 01/05/2019.

Kipping, M., & Clark, T. (2012). Researching Management Consulting: An Introduction to the Handbook. In. Kipping, M., & Clark, T. (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of management consulting. Oxford University Press.

Kipping, M., & Clark, T. (Eds.) (2012). The Oxford handbook of management consulting. Oxford University Press.

Kipping, M., & Kirkpatrick, I. (2013). Alternative pathways of change in professional services firms: The case of management consulting. Journal of Management Studies, 50(5), 777-807.

Kubr, M. (Ed.). (2002). Management consulting: A guide to the profession. International Labour Organization.

Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2006). Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms. Strategic management journal, 27(2), 131-150.

Le Coze, J. C. (2020). Human and Organisational Factors: Fad or not Fad?. In Human and Organisational Factors. Springer, Cham.

Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B. and Park, J. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs — na intermediated network model. Research Policy, 39(2), 290–300.

Lundvall, B. Å. (2016). National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. The Learning Economy and the Economics of Hope, 85.

Massey, C. (2003). Understanding the impact of a consultant’s worldview: the use of metaphor in a diagnostic exercise. Journal of European Industrial Training, 27(6), 304-312.

Mosonyi, S., Empson, L., & Gond, J. P. (2019). Management consulting: Towards an integrative framework of knowledge, identity, and power. International Journal of Management Reviews, 00, 1-30.

Powell, T. H., & Ambrosini, V. (2017). Espoused versus realized knowledge management tool usage in knowledge intensive organizations. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(2), 356-378.

Radziwon, A., & Bogers, M. (2019). Open innovation in SMEs: Exploring inter-organizational relationships in an ecosystem. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 146 (C), 573-587.

Rahman, H. and Ramos, I. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs: from closed boundaries to networked paradigm. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, 7(4), 471-487.

RALEIGH, North Carolina/PRNewswire/ (2019). Management Consulting Market to Reach $295 Billion by 2020, Says Beroe Inc. Disponível em: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/management-consulting-market-to-reach-295-billion-by-2020-says-beroe-inc-300943883.html. Acesso em: 23/10/ 2019

Roesch, S. M. A., Becker, G. V., & de MELLO, M. I. (2000). Projetos de estágio e de pesquisa em administração: guia para estágios, trabalhos de conclusão, dissertações e estudos de caso. Editora Atlas SA.

Rosa, A. C. M., Chimendes, V. C. G., & Amorim, G. F. (2020). Measuring open innovation practices in small companies at important Brazilian industrial centers. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 151, 119805. Lee, S., Park, G., Yoon, B., & Park, J. (2010). Open innovation in SMEs—An intermediated network model. Research policy, 39(2), 290-300.

Santoro, G., Ferraris, A., Giacosa, E., & Giovando, G. (2018). How SMEs engage in open innovation: a survey. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 9(2), 561-574.

Stanko, M. A., Fisher, G. J., & Bogers, M. (2017). Under the wide umbrella of open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 34(4), 543-558.

Sturdy, A. (2018). Promoting solutions and co-constructing problems–Management consultancy and instrument constituencies. Policy and Society, 37(1), 74-89.

Sturdy, A., & O’Mahoney, J. (2018). Explaining national variation in the use of management consulting knowledge: A framework. Management Learning, 49(5), 537-558.

Sturdy, A., Wright, C., & Wylie, N. (2016). Managers as consultants: The hybridity and tensions of neo-bureaucratic management. Organization, 23(2), 184-205.

Susanne, D., Serdal, T., & Aisenberg, F. H. (Eds.). (2018). Open Innovation and Knowledge Management in Small and Medium Enterprises (Vol. 3). World Scientific.

Szulanski, G. (1996). Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic management journal, 17(S2), 27-43.

Usman, M., Roijakkers, N., Vanhaverbeke, W., & Frattini, F. (2018). A systematic review of the literature on open innovation in SMEs. Researching Open Innovation in SMEs. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Van de Vrande, V., De Jong, J. P., Vanhaverbeke, W. and De Rochemont, M. (2009). Open innovation in SMEs: trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation, 29(6), 423–437.

Vanhaverbeke, W. (2012). Open innovation in SMEs: How can small companies and start-ups benefit from open innovation strategies? Leuven, Belgium: Flanders District of Creativity.

Vanhaverbeke, W. (2017). Managing Open Innovation in SMEs. Cambridge University Press.

Vanhaverbeke, W., Frattini, F., Roijakkers, N., & Usman, M. (2018). Researching Open Innovation in SMEs. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Vergara, S. C. (2006). Projetos e relatórios de pesquisa. São Paulo: Atlas.

Von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing Innovation. Cambridge: Ed. MIT Press.

Werr, A. (2012). Knowledge Management And Management Consulting. In. Kipping, M., & Clark, T. (Eds.). The Oxford handbook of management consulting. Oxford University Press.

Werr, A., & Stjernberg, T. (2003). Exploring management consulting firms as knowledge systems. Organization studies, 24(6), 881-908.

West, J. & Bogers, M. (2014) Leveraging external sources of innovation: a review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31 (4), 814-831.

Wright, C., Sturdy, A., & Wylie, N. (2012). Management innovation through standardization: Consultants as standardizers of organizational practice. Research Policy, 41(3), 652-662.

Wynarczyk, P., Piperopoulos, P. and McAdam, M. (2013). Open innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises: an overview. International Small Business Journal, 31(3), 240–255.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n1-315

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.