Os efeitos do distanciamento social sobre a frequência alimentar e o estilo de vida de moradores do Rio Grande do Sul / The effects social distancing about food frequency and lifestyle of residents of Rio Grande do Sul

Authors

  • Flavia Barbosa Leite e silva
  • Daniela Schneid Schuh

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34119/bjhrv5n4-028

Keywords:

padrões alimentares, Covid-19, frequência alimentar, estilo de vida, distanciamento social.

Abstract

A pandemia causada pelo COVID-19 afetou o estilo de vida da população mundial, principalmente devido às políticas de distanciamento social adotadas. O objetivo dessa pesquisa transversal é avaliar a frequência do consumo alimentar e os hábitos de vida de moradores com mais de 18 anos do Rio Grande do Sul, durante a pandemia causada pelo COVID-19 através de um questionário online. Foram coletadas informações sobre frequência alimentar, atividade física, número de lanches entre refeições, horas de sono, costume de cozinhar e hábito de fumar antes e durante o período de distanciamento social. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas com teste t de Student ou Wilcoxon. As variáveis categóricas foram comparadas utilizando-se o teste de McNemar. Participaram da pesquisa 369 gaúchos, sendo 76,8 % do sexo feminino. Em relação ao início da pandemia, os participantes referiram um aumento significativo no consumo de vegetais (p = 0,005) e frutas (p = 0,029) e uma diminuição significativa no consumo de laticínios (p < 0,001), carnes (p = 0,010), doces (p = 0,013) e produtos ultraprocessados (p = 0,008). A média do IMC referido dos participantes também aumentou (p < 0,001), enquanto os dias de práticas de atividade física reduziram (p < 0,001) durante o período de distanciamento social. O estudo mostra que as restrições impostas pela pandemia podem afetar a frequência alimentar e o estilo de vida da população.

References

Devlin UM, McNulty BA, Nugent AP, Gibney MJ. The use of cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns: methodological considerations, reproducibility, validity and the effect of energy mis-reporting. Proc Nutr Soc. 2012 Nov;71(4):599-609.

Louzada MLDC, Ricardo CZ, Steele EM, Levy RB, Cannon G, Monteiro CA. The share of ultra-processed foods determines the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil. Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan;21(1):94-102

Costa Louzada ML, Martins AP, Canella DS, Baraldi LG, Levy RB, Claro RM, Moubarac JC, Cannon G, Monteiro CA. Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2015;49:38.

BRASIL. MINISTÉRIO DA SAÚDE. Política Nacional de Promoção da Saúde: 3 ed. Brasília: [s.n.].

BRASIL. MINISTÉRIO DA SAÚDE. VIGITEL BRASIL 2019. 1 ed ed. Brasília: [s.n.].

Précoma DB, Oliveira GMM, Simão AF, Dutra OP, Coelho OR, Izar MCO, Póvoa RMDS, Giuliano ICB, Alencar Filho AC, Machado CA, Scherr C, Fonseca FAH, Santos Filho RDD, Carvalho T, Avezum Á Jr, Esporcatte R, Nascimento BR, Brasil DP, Soares GP, Villela PB, Ferreira RM, Martins WA, Sposito AC, Halpern B, Saraiva JFK, Carvalho LSF, Tambascia MA, Coelho-Filho OR, Bertolami A, Correa Filho H, Xavier HT, Faria-Neto JR, Bertolami MC, Giraldez VZR, Brandão AA, Feitosa ADM, Amodeo C, Souza DDSM, Barbosa ECD, Malachias MVB, Souza WKSB, Costa FAAD, Rivera IR, Pellanda LC, Silva MAMD, Achutti AC, Langowiski AR, Lantieri CJB, Scholz JR, Ismael SMC, Ayoub JCA, Scala LCN, Neves MF, Jardim PCBV, Fuchs SCPC, Jardim TSV, Moriguchi EH, Schneider JC, Assad MHV, Kaiser SE, Lottenberg AM, Magnoni CD, Miname MH, Lara RS, Herdy AH, Araújo CGS, Milani M, Silva MMFD, Stein R, Lucchese FA, Nobre F, Griz HB, Magalhães LBNC, Borba MHE, Pontes MRN, Mourilhe-Rocha R. Updated Cardiovascular Prevention Guideline of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology - 2019. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2019 Nov 4;113(4):787-891.

McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu S, Saltzman E, Wilson PW, Jacques PF. Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort. Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb;27(2):538-46.

Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN, Buttriss J. A review of the epidemiological evidence for the 'antioxidant hypothesis'. Public Health Nutr. 2004 May;7(3):407-22.

Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2569-78.

Sala-Vila A, Estruch R, Ros E. New insights into the role of nutrition in CVD prevention. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2015;17(5):26.

Fung TT, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Tofler GH, Willett WC, Hu FB. Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan;73(1):61-7.

Zabetakis I, Lordan R, Norton C, Tsoupras A. COVID-19: The Inflammation Link and the Role of Nutrition in Potential Mitigation. Nutrients. 2020 May 19;12(5):1466.

Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Sampson L, Willett WC. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Feb;69(2):243-9.

Fardet A, Rock E. Toward a new philosophy of preventive nutrition: from a reductionist to a holistic paradigm to improve nutritional recommendations. Adv Nutr. 2014 Jul 14;5(4):430-46.

Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):470-473.

Mousavizadeh L, Ghasemi S. Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2020 Mar 31:S1684-1182(20)30082-7.

BRASIL. MINISTÉRIO DA SAÚDE. Sobre a doença. Disponível em: <https://coronavirus.saude.gov.br/sobre-a-doenca>. Acesso em: 23 set. 2020b.

Velavan TP, Meyer CG. The COVID-19 epidemic. Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar;25(3):278-280.

WHO. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov). Disponível em: <https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-

Wilder-Smith A, Freedman DO. Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. J Travel Med. 2020 Mar 13;27(2):taaa020.

BRASIL. MINISTÉRIO DA SAÚDE. Coronavírus Brasil. Disponível em: <https://covid.saude.gov.br/>. Acesso em: 16 set. 2020ª.

GOVERNO DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL. Índice de isolamento social no RS durante a pandemia de Covid-19 05/10/20. GABINETE DE CRISE PARA O ENFRENTAMENTO DA EPIDEMIA COVID-19, p. 1–25, 2020c.

Sidor A, Rzymski P. Dietary Choices and Habits during COVID-19 Lockdown: Experience from Poland. Nutrients. 2020 Jun 3;12(6):1657

Ammar A, Brach M, Trabelsi K, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Masmoudi L, Bouaziz B, Bentlage E, How D, Ahmed M, Müller P, Müller N, Aloui A, Hammouda O, Paineiras-Domingos LL, Braakman-Jansen A, Wrede C, Bastoni S, Pernambuco CS, Mataruna L, Taheri M, Irandoust K, Khacharem A, Bragazzi NL, Chamari K, Glenn JM, Bott NT, Gargouri F, Chaari L, Batatia H, Ali GM, Abdelkarim O, Jarraya M, Abed KE, Souissi N, Van Gemert-Pijnen L, Riemann BL, Riemann L, Moalla W, Gómez-Raja J, Epstein M, Sanderman R, Schulz SV, Jerg A, Al-Horani R, Mansi T, Jmail M, Barbosa F, Ferreira-Santos F, Šimunič B, Pišot R, Gaggioli A, Bailey SJ, Steinacker JM, Driss T, Hoekelmann A. Effects of COVID-19 Home Confinement on Eating Behaviour and Physical Activity: Results of the ECLB-COVID19 International Online Survey. Nutrients. 2020 May 28;12(6):1583.

Di Renzo L, Gualtieri P, Pivari F, Soldati L, Attinà A, Cinelli G, Leggeri C, Caparello G, Barrea L, Scerbo F, Esposito E, De Lorenzo A. Eating habits and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 lockdown: an Italian survey. J Transl Med. 2020 Jun 8;18(1):229

Rodríguez-Pérez C, Molina-Montes E, Verardo V, Artacho R, García-Villanova B, Guerra-Hernández EJ, Ruíz-López MD. Changes in Dietary Behaviours during the COVID-19 Outbreak Confinement in the Spanish COVIDiet Study. Nutrients. 2020 Jun 10;12(6):1730.

Davies A, Wellard-Cole L, Rangan A, Allman-Farinelli M. Validity of self-reported weight and height for BMI classification: A cross-sectional study among young adults. Nutrition. 2020 Mar;71:110622

Peixoto Maria do Rosário Gondim, Benício Maria Helena D'Aquino, Jardim Paulo César Brandão Veiga. Validade de peso e altura autorreferidos: estudo de Goiânia, Brasil. Rev. Saúde Pública. Dezembro de 2006; 40 (6): 1065-1072.

United Nations. Protection and mobilizing youth in COVID-19 responses 2020. Disponível em: https://www.un.org/development/desa/youth/news/2020/05/covid19/.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Wang B, Xiang H, Cheng Z, Xiong Y, Zhao Y, Li Y, Wang X, Peng Z. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020 Mar 17;323(11):1061-1069.

Enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) | CDC. Disponível em: https://espanol.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html.

Zemel MB. Dietary pattern and hypertension: the DASH study. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Nutr Rev. 1997 Aug;55(8):303-5.

Rozenberg S, Body JJ, Bruyère O, Bergmann P, Brandi ML, Cooper C, Devogelaer JP, Gielen E, Goemaere S, Kaufman JM, Rizzoli R, Reginster JY. Effects of Dairy Products Consumption on Health: Benefits and Beliefs--A Commentary from the Belgian Bone Club and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016 Jan;98(1):1-17

Forouhi NG. Association between consumption of dairy products and incident type 2 diabetes--insights from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer study. Nutr Rev. 2015 Aug;73 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):15-22.

Sahni S, Tucker KL, Kiel DP, Quach L, Casey VA, Hannan MT. Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Osteoporos. 2013;8(0):119.

Louie JC, Flood VM, Hector DJ, Rangan AM, Gill TP. Dairy consumption and overweight and obesity: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev. 2011 Jul;12(7):e582-92.

McGregor RA, Poppitt SD. Milk protein for improved metabolic health: a review of the evidence. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2013 Jul 3;10(1):46.

Montonen J, Boeing H, Fritsche A, Schleicher E, Joost HG, Schulze MB, Steffen A, Pischon T. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):337-45.

Izar Maria Cristina de Oliveira, Lottenberg Ana Maria, Giraldez Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha, Santos Filho Raul Dias dos, Machado Roberta Marcondes, Bertolami Adriana et al . Posicionamento sobre o Consumo de Gorduras e Saúde Cardiovascular – 2021. Arq. Bras. Cardiol. 2021 Jan; 116( 1 ): 160-212.

Martinez Steele E, Rauber F, Costa CS, Leite MA, Gabe KT, Louzada ML, Levy RB, Monteiro CA. Mudanças alimentares na coorte NutriNet Brasil durante a pandemia de covid-19. Rev Saude Publica. 2020;54:91.

Reyes-Olavarría D, Latorre-Román PÁ, Guzmán-Guzmán IP, Jerez-Mayorga D, Caamaño-Navarrete F, Delgado-Floody P. Positive and Negative Changes in Food Habits, Physical Activity Patterns, and Weight Status during COVID-19 Confinement: Associated Factors in the Chilean Population. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 28;17(15):5431.

Husain W, Ashkanani F. Does COVID-19 change dietary habits and lifestyle behaviours in Kuwait: a community-based cross-sectional study. Environ Health Prev Med. 2020 Out 12;25(1):61.

Oginsky MF, Goforth PB, Nobile CW, Lopez-Santiago LF, Ferrario CR. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2016 Dez;41(13):2977-2986.

Rauber F, da Costa Louzada ML, Steele EM, Millett C, Monteiro CA, Levy RB. Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases-Related Dietary Nutrient Profile in the UK (2008⁻2014). Nutrients. 2018 Maio; 9;10(5):587.

Carr KA, Daniel TO, Lin H, Epstein LH. Reinforcement pathology and obesity. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011 Set; 4(3):190-6.

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde . Guia alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 2014. 210p

Cheikh Ismail L, Osaili TM, Mohamad MN, Al Marzouqi A, Jarrar AH, Abu Jamous DO, Magriplis E, Ali HI, Al Sabbah H, Hasan H, AlMarzooqi LMR, Stojanovska L, Hashim M, Shaker Obaid RR, Saleh ST, Al Dhaheri AS. Eating Habits and Lifestyle during COVID-19 Lockdown in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020 Out 29;12(11):3314.

Phillipou A, Meyer D, Neill E, Tan EJ, Toh WL, Van Rheenen TE, Rossell SL. Eating and exercise behaviors in eating disorders and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia: Initial results from the COLLATE project. Int J Eat Disord. 2020 Jul;53(7):1158-1165.

Luzi L, Radaelli MG. Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Diabetol. 2020 Jun; 57(6):759-764.

Letieri Rubens Vinícius, Furtado Guilherme Eustáquio. Exercício físico durante a doença coronavírus (COVID-19): Recomendações para permanecer ativo nos períodos de confinamento. A. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 2020; 92 (4): e20200691.

Jiménez-Pavón D, Carbonell-Baeza A, Lavie CJ. Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2020;63(3):386-388.

Scarmozzino F, Visioli F. Covid-19 and the Subsequent Lockdown Modified Dietary Habits of Almost Half the Population in an Italian Sample. Foods. 2020 Mai 25;9(5):675.

Lachat C, Nago E, Verstraeten R, Roberfroid D, Van Camp J, Kolsteren P. Eating out of home and its association with dietary intake: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes Rev. 2012 Abr;13(4):329-46.

Llanaj E, Ádány R, Lachat C, D'Haese M. Examining food intake and eating out of home patterns among university students. PLoS One. 2018 Out 8;13(10):e0197874.

Published

2022-07-05

Issue

Section

Original Papers