The use of pesticides in Brazil and the risks linked to human health / O uso de pesticidas no Brasil e os riscos associados à saúde humana

Authors

  • Aline Nunes
  • Caroline Schmitz
  • Sidnei Moura
  • Marcelo Maraschin

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n4-311

Keywords:

toxicology, food security, contamination, exposure.

Abstract

The increased demand for food has intensified large-scale production systems, mainly represented by monocultures that encourage the indiscriminate use of pesticides. These products have been considered a public health concern around the world, being responsible for environmental and food contamination, which lead to risks to human health. Globally, one can note a discrepancy in the regulation of these chemicals among countries, with a wide range of maximum accepted levels of contaminants depending on the country. In Brazil, agriculture has been the main economic activity over centuries, which have led commonly to the use of huge amounts of pesticides, i.e., ~ 620,000 tons pesticides in 2019. This study aims at to discuss the regulatory differences in Brazil vis-à-vis in respecting to other countries and correlating them with the worsening of the public health status due to the risk of developing acute and chronic diseases. The scenario that come out from the analysis of the ongoing Brazilian legislation on pesticide registration and commercialization suggests that it is quite lesser restrictive than noted, for instance, in the European Union. Thus, a series of urgent and harmonized efforts are required to mitigate the ongoing risk to human health resulting from the increasing amounts of pesticides used in Brazil, as result of an erroneous policy carried out by the Federal government. Among other actions, firstly it is urgent to restructure the laws and regulations on the release and use of pesticides in the country. In addition, policies directed towards sustainable production systems must be foster and strengthened, providing adequate food to consumers and improving the lives of rural workers, as well as reducing the risk of environmental contamination of soil and water. Finally, it has been assumed that only when a more rational and environmental-friendly legislation replaces the current set of rules on pesticide release and usage, along with the adoption of agroecological production systems of biomasses coupled to public campaigns for information of the society as a whole, it will be possible to reduce the risks to the human health caused by the overuse of pesticides.

References

AGROLINK. Agrolinkfito. Porto Alegre, 2020. https://www.agrolink.com.br/agrolinkfito/busca-direta-produto#.

ANVISA. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. Marco Regulatório. Publicada reclassificação toxicológica de agrotóxicos. Brasília, 2019.

ARAÚJO, I. M. M., OLIVEIRA, A. G. R. C. Agronegócio e agrotóxicos: impactos à saúde dos trabalhadores agrícolas no nordeste brasileiro. Trabalho, Educação e Saúde, v. 15, n. 1, p. 117-129, 2017.

ASGHAR, U.; MALIK, M. F.; JAVED, A. Pesticide exposure and human health: a review. Journal of Ecosystem & Ecography, v. 5, p. 1-4, 2016.

ASMUS, C. I. R. F. et al. Positive correlation between pesticide sales and central nervous system and cardiovascular congenital abnormalities in Brazil. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, v. 27, p. 420-426, 2017.

BOMBARDI, L. M. Geografia do uso de agrotóxicos no Brasil e conexões com a União Europeia. São Paulo: FFLCH, USP, 2017.

BOTITSI, H.; TSIPI, D.; ECONOMOU, A. Current Legislation on Pesticides. In: Romero-González, R., Garrido, A. Applications in High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Elsevier, p. 83-130, 2017.

BOUDH S.; SINGH J. S. Pesticide Contamination: Environmental Problems and Remediation Strategies. In: Bharagava R., Chowdhary P. (eds) Emerging and Eco-Friendly Approaches for Waste Management. Springer, Singapore, 2019.

BRAZIL. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Registros concedidos – 2005 – 2020. Brasília, 2021. https://www.gov.br/agricultura/pt-br/assuntos/insumos-agropecuarios/insumos-agricolas/agrotoxicos/informacoes-tecnicas.

BRAZIL. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária. Portaria nº 03, de 16 de janeiro de 1992. Brasília, 1992. http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/svs1/1992/prt0003_16_01_1992.html.

CALDAS, E. D. Pesticide Poisoning in Brazil. Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, p. 1-9, 2016.

CARNEIRO, F. F. et al. Os impactos dos agrotóxicos no contexto do agronegócio. In: ARAÚJO, M. M. et al. (Ed.). A agricultura familiar e o direito humano à alimentação: conquistas e desafios. Brasília, DF: Câmara dos Deputados, 2015.

CASIDA, J. E.; DURKIN, K. A. Pesticide chemical research in toxicology: lessons from nature. Chemical Research in Toxicology, v. 30, n. 1, p. 94-104, 2016.

CLARK, J. F. M. Pesticides, pollution and the UK's silent spring, 1963–1964: Poison in the Garden of England. Notes and Records: The Royal Society Journal of the History of Science, v. 71, n. 3, p. 297-327, 2017.

DONLEY, N. The USA lags behind other agricultural nations in banning harmful pesticides. Environmental Health, v. 18, p. 1-12, 2019.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. EU Pesticides Database. European Union, 2020. https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=activesubstance.selection&language=EN.

EUROPEAN FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY (EFSA) et al. Use of EFSA Pesticide Residue Intake Model (EFSA PRIMo revision 3). EFSA Journal, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-43, 2019.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management. Rome: World Health Organization, 2014.

GARCIA GARCIA, E.; BUSSACOS, M. A.; FISCHER, F. M. Impacto da legislação no registro de agrotóxicos de maior toxicidade no Brasil. Revista de Saúde Pública, v. 39, n. 5, p. 832-839, 2005.

GODOI, E. L.; DOMINGOS, A. T. S. Políticas Públicas e sua interface com o consumo de agrotóxicos no Brasil. Revista Direitos Sociais e Políticas Públicas (UNIFAFIBE), v. 8, n. 3, p. 191-212, 2020.

GÓMEZ-BARROSO, D. et al. Agricultural crop exposure and risk of childhood cancer: new findings from a case–control study in Spain. International Journal of Health Geographics, v. 15, p. 1-11, 2016.

HEDLUND, J.; LONGO, S. B.; YORK, R. Agriculture, pesticide use, and economic development: a global examination (1990-2014). Rural Sociology, v. 85, n. 2, p. 519-544, 2019.

HIRANO, R. et al. Growth and neurite stimulating effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide clothianidin on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmocology, v. 383, p. 2-38, 2019.

HOCHANE, M. et al. Low-dose pesticide mixture induces senescence in normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and promotes tumorigenic phenotype in premalignant MSC. Stem Cells, v. 35, p. 800-811, 2017.

IBAMA. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. Relatórios de comercialização de agrotóxicos. 2020. Disponível em: https://www.ibama.gov.br/agrotoxicos/relatorios-de-comercializacao-de-agrotoxicos#sobreosrelatorios.

IBAMA. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Relatórios de comercialização de agrotóxicos. Brasília, 2020. https://www.ibama.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=594&Itemid=54.

JACOBSEN-PEREIRA, C. H. et al. Markers of genotoxicity and oxidative stress in farmers exposed to pesticides. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, v. 148, p. 177-183, 2018.

LANS-CEBALLOS E, LOMBANA-GÓMEZ M, PINEDO-HERNÁNDEZ, J. Residuos de pesticidas organoclorados en leche pasteurizada distribuida en Montería, Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, v. 20, p. 208-214, 2018.

LARA, S. S. et al. Intoxicação aguda por agrotóxicos nos estados do Brasil, 2006 a 2010. Cadernos de Agroecologia, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-5, 2015.

LEWIS, K. A. et al. An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, v. 24, n. 4, p. 1050-1064, 2016.

LI, Z.; JENNINGS, A. Global variations in pesticide regulations and health risk assessment of maximum concentration levels in drinking water. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 212, p. 384-394, 2018.

LIU, P.; GUO, Y. Current situation of pesticide residues and their impact on exports in China. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, v. 227, p. 1-9, 2019.

LOPES, C. V. A.; Albuquerque, G. S. C. Desafios e avanços no controle de resíduos de agrotóxicos no Brasil: 15 anos do Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v. 37, n. 2, p. 1-14, 2021.

MANYILIZY, W. B. et al. Self-Reported symptoms and pesticide use among farm workers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: a cross sectional study. Toxics, v. 5, p. 1-13, 2017.

MORRIS, P. J. T. A tale of two nations: DDT in the United States and the United Kingdom. In: Homburg, E.; Vaupel, E. Hazardous Chemical. Berghahn Book: New York, 2019.

NASCIMENTO, L.; MELNYK, A. A química dos pesticidas no meio ambiente e na saúde. Revista Mangaio Acadêmico, v. 1, n. 1, p. 54-61, 2016.

NASRALA NETO, E.; LACAZ, F. A. C.; PIGNATI, W. A. Vigilância em saúde e agronegócio: os impactos dos agrotóxicos na saúde e no ambiente. Perigo à vista! Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, v. 19, n. 12, p. 4709-4718, 2014.

OSTEN, J. R. V.; DZUL-CAAMAL, R. Glyphosate Residues in Groundwater, Drinking Water and Urine of Subsistence Farmers from Intensive Agriculture Localities: A Survey in Hopelchén, Campeche, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v. 14, n. 6, p. 1-13, 2017.

PARA. Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos. Relatório das amostras analisadas no período de 2017-2018. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Brasília, 2019.

PEREIRA, J. V. et al. Physical-chemical properties of pesticides: concepts, applications, and interactions with the environment. Bioscience Journal, v. 32, n. 3, p. 627-641, 2016.

PIGNATI, W. A. et al. Distribuição espacial do uso de agrotóxicos no Brasil: uma ferramenta para a Vigilância em Saúde. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, v. 22, n. 10, p. 3281-3293, 2017.

PLUTH, T. B.; ZANINI, L. A. G.; BATTISTI, I. D. E. Pesticide exposure and cancer: an integrative literature review. Saúde em Debate, v. 43, n. 122, p. 906-924, 2019.

PRUDENTE, I. R. G. et al. Evidence of risks of renal function reduction due to occupational exposure to agrochemicals: A systematic review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, v. 63, p. 21-28, 2018.

QUEIROZ, P. R. et al. Sistema de informação de agravos de notificação e as intoxicações humanas por agrotóxicos no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, v. 22, p. 1-10, 2019.

RAZA, H. A. et al. Residual impacts of pesticides on environmental and health of sugarcane farmers in Punjab with special reference to integrated pest management. Journal of Global Innovations in Agricultural and Social Sciences, v. 7, p. 79-84, 2019.

RICHARDSON, J. R. et al. Neurotoxicity of pesticides. Acta Neuropathologica, v. 138, p. 343-362, 2019.

ROSENBAUM, P. F. et al. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States. Environment International, v. 108, p. 11-21, 2017.

ROSER, M. "Pesticides". Published online at OurWorldInData.org, 2019. https://ourworldindata.org/pesticides.

SALAROLI, L. et al. Occupation exposure to agrochemicals, risks and safety practices in family agriculture in a municipality of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Current Developments in Natrution, v. 3, p. 259-263, 2019.

SANKOH, A. I. et al. An assessment of the impacts of pesticide use on the environment and health of rice farmers in Serra Leone. Environmental International, v. 94, p. 458-466, 2016.

SERRA, L. S. et al. Revolução Verde: reflexões acerca da questão dos agrotóxicos. Revista Científica do Centro de Estudos em Desevolvimento Sustentável da UNDB, v. 1, n. 4, p. 2-25, 2016.

SINAN. Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Intoxicação Exógena. Brasília, 2020. https://portalsinan.saude.gov.br/intoxicacao-exogena.

SOARES, D. F.; FARIA, A. M.; ROSA, A. H. Análise de risco de contaminação de águas subterrâneas por resíduos de agrotóxicos no município de Campo Novo do Parecis (MT), Brasil. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, v. 22, n. 2, p. 277-284, 2017.

STORCK, V.; KARPOUZAS, D. G.; MARTIN-LAURENT, F. Towards a better pesticide policy for the European Union. Sci. Total Environ. v. 575, p.1027-1033, 2017.

TSYGANKOV, V. Y. et al. Organochlorine pesticides in commercial Pacific salmon in the Russian Far Eastern seas: Food safety and human health risk assessment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, v. 140, p. 503-508, 2019.

van den Berg, H. et al. Pesticide lifecycle management in agriculture and public health: Where are the gaps? Science of The Total Environment, v. 742, p. 1-10, 2020.

VENTURA, C. et al. Effects of the pesticide chlorpyrifos on breast cancer disease. Implication of epigenetic mechanisms. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 186, p. 96-104, 2019.

VoPham, T. et al. Pesticide exposure and liver cancer: a review. Cancer Causes & Control, v. 28, p. 177-190, 2017.

Ye, M. et al. Pesticide exposures and respiratory health in general populations. Journal of Environmental Sciences, v. 51, p. 361-370, 2017.

ZALLER, J. G. Where Are the Solutions to the Pesticide Problem? In: Daily Poison. Springer, Cham, 2020.

ZHANG, W.J. Global pesticide use: profile, trend, cost/benefit and more. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, v. 8, n. 1, p. 1-27, 2018.

ZIBANKUBA, V. L. et al. Pesticide regulations and their malpractice implications on food and environment safety. Cogent Food & Agriculture, v. 5, n. 1, p. 1-15, 2019.

Published

2021-04-13

How to Cite

Nunes, A., Schmitz, C., Moura, S., & Maraschin, M. (2021). The use of pesticides in Brazil and the risks linked to human health / O uso de pesticidas no Brasil e os riscos associados à saúde humana. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(4), 37885–37904. https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv7n4-311

Issue

Section

Original Papers